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Subclassification for Code Reuse
Favor composition over inheritance.
Refactor deep hierarchies.
Any linter can check for suspects against a max depth threshold.
Many novice programmers reuse code through hierarchies. This brings high coupled and low cohesive hierarchies.
Johnson and Foote established in their paper this was actually a good design recipe back in 1988. We have learned a lot from there.
We must refactor and flatten those classes.
An error arises from treating object variables (instance variables) as if they were data attributes and then creating your hierarchy based on shared attributes. Always create hierarchies based on shared behaviors, side.