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Cover image for Code Smell 07 - Boolean Variables
Maxi Contieri
Maxi Contieri

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Code Smell 07 - Boolean Variables

Using boolean variables as flags, exposes accidental implementation and pollutes the code with Ifs.

TL;DR: Don't use boolean variables, they force you to write Ifs. Create polymorphic states instead.


  • Extensibility

  • Comparison in some languages


  • If Boolean maps to a real world entity is safe. Otherwise, model as a State to favor Extensibility. This also follows Open/Closed Principle.


  • Flags


  • Real world true/false rules

Sample Code



function processBatch(
    bool $useLogin,
    bool $deleteEntries,
    bool $beforeToday) {
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function processBatch(
    LoginStrategy $login,
    DeletionPolicy $deletionPolicy,
    Date $cutoffDate) {
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Automatic detection can warn for boolean usage, but this can yield false positives.


Some languages have issues with boolean comparators.

Alt Text

In these coupled with accidental complexity languages, booleans are a common error source.

Also Known as

  • Flag Abuser


  • Declarative

  • Primitive

More info

Martin Fowler


Take extra care when declaring something boolean. Flags are difficult to maintain and extend.
Learn more about the domain. Try migrating to state design pattern. Use polymorphism instead of ifs/switch/cases.


Photo by Phil Hearing on Unsplash

These tweets inspired this code smell:

This article is part of the CodeSmell Series.

Last update: 2021/06/08

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