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ender minyard

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Full Stack Developer's Roadmap 🗺

It's easy to focus on the front end of web development, but what about the back end? Learning about the back end improves your front end skills.

Here are some resources for full stack development that you can save for later.

Table Of Contents

💻 How The Internet Works
🔚 Advanced Front End
🖥 Operating Systems
📕 Languages
🖲 Version Control
📓 Database Concepts
📔 Relational Databases
📗 NoSQL Databases
📨 APIs
♻️ Caching
🔒 Security
📙 Development Concepts
🏯 Software Architecture
🧊 Containers
📬 Servers
⚖️ Scalablity

How The Internet Works 💻

What happens when you go to
🎉 Introduction to Networks
💫 Browser Networking
🎊 IP Addressing
⭐️ HTTP/2

Advanced Front End 🔚

💫 JavaScript

Operating Systems 🖥

Using the command line
🎉 What is an operating system?
💫 Memory
🎊 Unix Programming
⭐️ Bash-Scripting Guide

Languages 📕

Know PHP
🎉 Learn Ruby
💫 Learn Rust
🎊 Learn Go
⭐️ Know Server-Side JavaScript

Version Control 🖲

A Visual Git Reference
🎉 Visualizing Git Concepts with D3
💫 Github Cheat Sheet

Database Concepts 📓

🌟 Object-Relational Mapping
💫 N+1 Problem
☄️ Sharding
CAP Theorem
💥 Normalization
🌟 Indexes

Relational Databases 📔

Theory of Relational Databases
🎉 Learn MySQL
💫 Learn PostgreSQL
🎊 Learn MariaDB
🌟 Learn MS SQL

NoSQL Databases 📗

Learning MongoDB
🎉 Learn CouchDB
💫 NoSQL Databases
🎊 Graph Databases

APIs 📨

⭐️ Working with APIs
💡 GraphQL

Caching ♻️

HTTP caching
☄️ Redis
⭐️ Memcached
🚀 Service workers

Security 🔒

💫 MD5
🎊 SHA-2
💡 SCrypt
💥 BCrypt


Testing your code
🎉 Jenkins
💫 TravisCI

Development Concepts 📙

🎉 Domain-Driven Design
🌟 Test Driven Development

Software Architecture 🏯

💫 Microservices and Service Oriented Architecture
⭐️ Serverless

Containers 🧊

Docker Fundamentals
🎉 Docker Cookbook
💫 Kubernetes Cookbook

Servers 📬

☄️ Nginx Handbook
💡 Apache
💥 Caddy

Scalability ⚖️

💫 Distributed Systems
☄️ System Design Primer
Real-World Maintainable Software
🎉 The 12 Factor App
🌟 Architecting Frontend Projects To Scale

This was inspired by a different post. In the other post, I wanted the author to provide resources for the topics they mentioned, so I made my own post. ✨

If you think I missed any resources in this post, comment them below!

Discussion (111)

anraiki profile image

If you are new, and you are coming in here to see this.

I hope this isn't overwhelming to you.

Don't be discourage.

A Full-Stack Developer is more of a very long journey rather than this experience listed out here.

natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

Agreed plus “full stack” is a fancy way of companies getting someone to do two jobs for the price of one. It takes years to get good at front end or backend, let alone both

iamrohitsawai profile image
Rohit Kiran Sawai • Edited on

I can't say I'm newbie. I have fundamental knowledge of programming. When I saw above list I came to know I know very less. Till I complete this list, complete framework will change then in what way should I be full stack developer?

sumit profile image
Sumit Singh

I think it's more about learning the fundamentals of each phase. I think that's what you have also done when started programming. Learning basic fundamentals in any language and applying it in other languages.

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bhadresharya profile image
Bhadresh Arya

That's right. Frameworks will come and go. but the concept stays the same. If the core concept and fundamentals are learnt well then no language or no framework will be hard to understand.

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trangchongcheng profile image

I agree

aashiqincode profile image
Aashiq Ahmed M

But not the core na

zachgoll profile image
Zach Gollwitzer

Totally agree. The additional point that I would add is that this list appears as separate concepts, but if you're building a production-ready application, you'll learn 80% of this list within the scope of a single project. I don't think they are meant to be learned in isolation (although sometimes this is necessary).

ankitmpatel profile image
Ankit Patel

Agreed!! That's why the roadmap requires achieving a long journey. I guess the author tries to convey!!

hyperx837 profile image

just following these things and "diving deep" into this topics will complete that long journey

ajax27 profile image
Shaun Collins

Totally agree!

dualyticalchemy profile image
⚫️ nothingness negates itself • Edited on

the web fundamentally is a distributed hypermedia application

siy profile image
Sergiy Yevtushenko

Suggestion to use microservices is not very good one. This is an expensive step and in most cases organizations are not prepared for them.

dualyticalchemy profile image
⚫️ nothingness negates itself • Edited on

i didn't suggest to use microservices. i saw that someone else mentioned it, and i supplied links to tools and ideas that makes microservices easier to achieve. i listed tools relevant to microservices; i did not suggest that one choose microservices over some other SOA or style irrespective to their problem or economic situation

if anything, a more intuitive reading of my post would be: "IF you use microservices, use scale cube and microservice design canvas", not "HEY USE MICROSERVICE NOW"

notice, all I did was mention the word "microservice" and two things. just because someone puts it on the road map doesn't mean it's a suggested path, but that it is a suggestion of an opportunity to take a path.

this discussion is about what we can learn as developers in order to be competitive and knowledgeable given the problem set, regardless of the budget to achieve it. we're not here to figure out one organization's problem as individual developers. microservices is one of many things we're expected to understand and learn. we're not asking "what is the road map if you have budget X for organization Y", we're just asking what the road map is. you're bringing it a lot of other background or contextual information to a discussion that doesn't depend on it

dualyticalchemy profile image
⚫️ nothingness negates itself • Edited on

oh you mention docker; use lazydocker. also: percol, ranger, ack, ... all available through homebrew. pryjs is helpful too

ender_minyard profile image
ender minyard Author

this is so good

alamba78 profile image
Amit Lamba

Python 3 would be a fundamental language to learn before even JS, Rust, and Go.

natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

Before JavaScript? Not if one plans on touching the web at all. Go and Rust are up-and-coming but not big yet.

alamba78 profile image
Amit Lamba • Edited on

The article is about fullstack roadmap. A person new to programming would only get tripped up with JS's quirks, if they truly want to learn JS and not a framework or library. Python will be better to learn OO, and with that foundation someone can tackle the idiosyncrasies (prototypal inheritance) of JS. I would never wish for my enemy to come into programming with JS as their first language. Better to get an early win with Python or even Java. It's not a race.

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natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

No JS = no full stack job. You’re gonna use Python for front end? Don’t think so. JS is required like it or not. You can’t have a roadmap of skills that leaves out the only native language to the front end. No front end frameworks and no big backend languages like Java and C#.
To each their own. But if you have all the skills listed you’ll never get a full stack job without JavaScript + react and C# / Java.

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alamba78 profile image
Amit Lamba

You seem to be looking for an argument. I never said don't learn JS. It's the order of learning I'm talking about. JS first, in my opinion, will lead people new to programming down a whole lot of hurt. I think you should re-read what I said without your bias. JS is fantastic and crucial, in time, for a new programmer.

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natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

Nope, no argument here. Just options. Thanks for the clarification. It’s a great roadmap

Thread Thread
savagepixie profile image
SavagePixie • Edited on

JS first, in my opinion, will lead people new to programming down a whole lot of hurt.

On the other hand, people who start with JavaScript won't try to write JavaScript as if it were another programming language and get frustrated because it doesn't work like their favourite language does. Neither will they learn only one programming paradigm like OOP because it's the only one their language supports and then try to impose it to every other language they learn.

Also, JavaScript is a very nice language to start with because you can very quickly see fancy things happening (like a webpage reacting to user clicks and all that), as opposed to just printing stuff on the console.

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natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

I agree. In some ways it’s a good first language: no install needed, visual feedback, tons of resources etc. but in others it isn’t: dynamically typed, quirks, prototypal, weird type system etc.

One definitely needs statically typed OOP languages like C# or Java to get the fundamentals down. Too many wannabes hate on statically typed languages because they’re “hard”.

Either way, if one’s gonna be a full stack Dev then they have to learn JS, or you’re by definition not full-stack which is my argument on the whole roadmap.

cjcon90 profile image
Ciaran Concannon

I've only just started learning python for the purposes of backend skills in the near future, glad to see this comment here! 😋

jep profile image

Excellent list. For the benefit of other folks who may be working in a company that uses different technologies for different groups, I recommend adding some information about Subversion (SVN) under Version Control. I was so used to git, but hadn't ever used SVN and it took some time to get out of the Git mindset.

There are two posts on DEV that may be of use :

ender_minyard profile image
ender minyard Author


pawelowczarekfalcon profile image
Paweł Owczarek

Nice article, thanks :) ... but there is nothing about Frameworks. They are very important. Full-Stack Dev should know Spring Boot (JAVA) and Symfony (PHP) for creating REST APIs and Angular or React for Front End development. There is many topics covered which are less important than frameworks, that needed in work ;-).

lbeul profile image
Louis • Edited on

I totally get your point, Paweł. From the Employability Aspect, it makes a lot of sense to focus on the latest frameworks and libraries. However - as a learning roadmap - the goal of this article may be to focus on teaching you the underlying concepts and principles modern web apps rely on. I think if you got this essential knowledge and understand what goes on "under the hood", it'll be easy for you to pick up new languages & frameworks.

allestri profile image

Not only Symfony but Slim is also great for creating simple API, as it names suggests, Slim is lightweight.
Design patterns such as MVC or ADR which the creator of Slim embraces ( I personally don't like it tho ) could be a plus.

dabjazz profile image

I've got the java developer roadmap
Core java(basic concepts, oops, collection framework, stream api)->advance java (servlets,JSP,JDBC)->build tool(maven/gradle)->framework (Spring/hibernate/play/grails etc)

melvinkim profile image
Melvin Kimathi

Hey, could you share the Java roadmap

shaijut profile image
Shaiju T • Edited on

Nice , 😄, Add Java and C# in languages , it is used by big companies and enterprise, both languages have more Job opportunities. Also add Design Patterns in Development Concepts.

sandorturanszky profile image

You need to now what's availble, but focus on Front-end or Backend. Unless you use JavaScript, of course. In this case you can be more or less proficient in the client and server tech.

The best is to learn concepts and patterns. The rest are tools that come and go. If you know a programming language, you will figure our any framework or lib written with it. If you know what databases are, what are the core principles, how they work and what they are for (SQL, NoSQL, Graph), you will figure out MySQL, PostgresQL, Mongo, etc.

With this knowledge you will be always uptodate.

andrewbaisden profile image
Andrew Baisden

Cool list missing the frameworks though like React, Angular and Vue. Also there are much more languages than that some readers might think that you have to learn all of them. When in reality you can specialise with certain technical stacks like React/Node, React/Flask etc... Also you did not mention Python as a language which has more popularity than PHP and Ruby. Choice is good better to cover them all.

scroung720 profile image

Thank you for sharing. I think it would be a good idea to add to the security section.

ender_minyard profile image
ender minyard Author


bunda3d profile image
Vom Com

I didn't see much on a major corporate tech stack: Microsoft-backed .NET frameworks, SQL Server, and their server architecture (IIS).

There's also not much on what I consider the nexus point, common ground, equalizer, or uniter of the front and backend dev: the IDE. And to tie it back to MS, IMO, they provide the 2 best IDEs in the business: Visual Studio and VS Code. The IDE is where I spend 80 percent of my time as a full stack developer, along with browsers (using dev tools for troubleshooting and researching the internet--I consider the browser as part of the Integrated Development Environment, at least in practice).

It's not to be an exhaustive list of specifics, I know, but here's my comments on specific categories I saw missing the Microsoft platforms I'm used to learning about/using as a full stack dev, FWIW. (I also live in an Apache /Angular / PHP / MySQL world, and saw more about those stacks on the list, which is fair).

Good list of concepts and technologies to be aware of in some degree as a FSD.

dabjazz profile image

Just How long it will take to complete this journey? I'm in third (pre-final year) of my engineering and I'm about to start my journey in development. I still couldn't decide whether to opt for android development or web development.

ender_minyard profile image
ender minyard Author • Edited on

Learning is the point.

Learning how to learn is the most important skill you can practice. You will never stop learning. There will always be something new. The point is to enjoy the process of learning.

natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

I have 8 years industry experience and I haven’t finished this list. One just has to be capable of learning to survive in the field.

ptprashanttripathi profile image
Pt. Prashant tripathi • Edited on

Hi, I'm a newbie I have learned

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

I have made some small projects in past
What should I learn next

tnharvey profile image

This this this! I've seen so many "full stack roadmaps" that did exactly what the other roadmap you referenced did, and left me wanting more specifics. What newcomers will benefit most from is hearing from experienced coders which specific resources are most valuable, and how those fit into the bigger pitcture, which this does. Thanks!

stojakovic99 profile image
Nikola Stojaković

For those who are still coming to this post - don't use Rust by Example if you're a beginner. Start with the Rust book. Also, keep in mind that Rust is quite hard for beginner developers and there are not much jobs in it right now for juniors.

kisore99 profile image
Kisore Subburaman

Thanks a lot!

swathipai13 profile image

I started crying after reading this list. Firstly because I was getting a grip over node and react, juggling with python and Javascript. I always thought for myself, these would be something industries use and would help me make many projects, and also land in a descent job. Guess it would take time for me to do anything in life!

ender_minyard profile image
ender minyard Author • Edited on

Consider this a lifelong reading list, not a to-do list. Take your time.

It will not "take time" for you "to do anything in life". Every day that you wake up and get out of bed, you're doing something. Brushing your teeth and making your bed is an accomplishment, especially during the times we're living in. Please be kind to yourself.

farukbigez profile image

really good roadmap. Followers of this roadmap keep this in your mind: this is an adventure not a race or mission that needs to be completed

kevinlalkalathingal profile image

Thank you for this post. I'm new here and now i know that there's a lot more to learn.

nocnica profile image
Nočnica Fee

Welcome! Thanks for bringing the positivity

oryon profile image
Aryan Verma

Thanks a ton! This has got to be one of the best web dev source compilations!

anja profile image

Brilliant thanks for this! 😊

devdev606 profile image

Thanks you.. successful for u.. GBU

rahulh123 profile image

Wow! This is incredible! I think this is the kinda stuff that makes self-learning easier. It's like a curriculum. Thank you so much for this resource, I am sure you helped a lot of developers.

fluxthedev profile image

Nice road map! Senior-ish web developer here looking to go full stack. Curious, why do you have Rust and Go? Do I really need to learn both?

natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

Nope. Pick C# or Java. That’s what companies use. Ignore Go and Rust; no jobs for them. Spring Boot for Java or .NET core MVC and you’re set.

fluxthedev profile image

Actually when I worked for nationwide, alot of teams were using go for a Middleware between front end and back end/apps. Wendy's also (unless they changed it in the last 3 years) uses go for their pos system

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natescode profile image
Nathan Hedglin

Cool! I’d love to do Go professionally.

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fluxthedev profile image

Yeah it seems to be kicking off! Find a use for it where you are and make a case for it!

devhammed profile image
Hammed Oyedele

How will I be able to know all these when the government of where I live "Nigeria" is killing techies!

mmoallemi99 profile image
Mohammad Moallemi • Edited on

I've written a Python Backend Developer Roadmap from Zero to Mastery, it can be a good fit in your list.


amt8u profile image

Good collection. Adding to my reading list. But I wont categorize this as Full Stack dev guide. In fact every topic itself is so big that you could find a full time job for each one of them. At once it felt like I am checking out the syllabus for a 3 year course.

javinpaul profile image

This is awesome, I love this kind of resource posts but yes don't get overwhelm with the information provided here. You can learn at your speed. And, if you love roadmaps

here are some more
Frontend Developer RoadMap
Reactjs Developer RoadMap
Frontend Developer RoadMap
Java Developer RoadMap

mdalaminroni22 profile image
mdalaminroni22 • Edited on

I really enjoyed this article
Also a find this platform to more information - 🕵️‍💯 (how to become a full stack web developer "

amboulouma profile image
Amin M. Boulouma
domis66 profile image
Dominique Péré • Edited on

Awesome list! And so realize today it's way harder to become a fullstack developer it used to be.... You might want to consider some platforms helping you down that road, just like ScaleDynamics

It turns a simple JS modules into a hosted back end and a client wrapper). Work smarter, not harder ;)

lollykrown profile image

I finally have time to go through this and I'm wowed. Thank you so much for this compilation @ender. This means so much someone like me with no computer science background

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