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Denyse
Denyse

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Null safety and asynchronous programming in dart 😊

Hey folks, in this series is second chapter, here we are going to go through major dart features with the assumption that you already know how to program in another languageπŸ˜‰

As you learn Dart you have to keep these concepts in mind:

Null safety in Dart

  • Dart offers sound null safety, that is to say types in your code are non-nullable by default, meaning that variables can’t contain null unless you say they can. With sound null safety, Dart can protect you from null exceptions at runtime through static code analysis. Unlike many other null-safe languages, when Dart determines that a variable is non-nullable, that variable is always non-nullable. If you inspect your running code in the debugger, you’ll see that non-nullability is retained at runtime (hence sound null safety).
// In null-safe Dart, none of these can ever be null.
var i = 50; // Inferred to be an int.
String name = getFileName();
final b = Foo();
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To indicate that a variable may be null you can use ?

int? aNullableInt = null;
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Generally speaking, variables that have no value are null, and this may lead to errors in your code. If you have been programming for any length of time, you are probably already
familiar with null exceptions in your code. The goal of null safety is to help you prevent execution errors raised by the improper use of null. With null safety, by default, your variables cannot be assigned a null value.

So how can one use dart null safety ? πŸ€”
It's simple dart null safety is avaiable in Dart ^2.12 or Flutter 2 as well as Flutter 3.
But also if you want to migrate your app to null safety you can
use:

$ dart create -t console my_cli
$ cd my_cli
$ dart migrate --apply-changes
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⚠️ But wait.. Before migrating your app to null safety check this first:

  1. Wait for the packages that you depend on to migrate
//Get the migration state of your package’s dependencies, using the following command:
$ dart pub outdated --mode=null-safety
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  1. Migrate your package's code, preferably using the interactive migration tool. You can also migrate using

dart migrate

or migrate your code by hand.

  1. Statically analyze your package’s code.
$ dart pub get
$ dart analyze
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  1. Test to make sure your changes work.
dart test
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  1. Publish ✨

If the package is already on pub.dev, publish the null-safe version as a prerelease version. πŸŽ‰ If you have reached this step kudos to you πŸ˜‰

Asynchronous programming in dart

Asynchronous operations let your program complete work while waiting for another operation to finish. There are some common asynchronous operations which are :

  • Fetching data over a network.

  • Writing to a database.

  • Reading data from a file.

It works in situations when you are searching for straightforwardness over productivity. To deal with basic and autonomous information, asynchronous programming is an extraordinary decision.

Asynchronous programming

Why should we use asynchronous programming πŸ€”

  1. Improvement in performance and responsiveness of your application, especially when you have long-running activities that don’t need to block the execution. For this situation, you can perform other work while waiting for the outcome from the long-running undertaking.
  2. Assemble your code in a flawless and comprehensible manner fundamentally better than the standard code of the conventional thread creation and taking care of it with async / await , you compose less code and your code will be more viable than utilizing the past asynchronous programming strategies like utilizing plain assignment.

Such asynchronous computations usually provide their result as a Future or, if the result has multiple parts, as a Stream. These computations introduce asynchrony into a program. To accommodate that initial asynchrony, other plain Dart functions also need to become asynchronous.

To interact with these asynchronous results, you can use the async and await keywords. Most asynchronous functions are just async Dart functions that depend, possibly deep down, on an inherently asynchronous computation.

hummm, Then what's a future in dart?

A future represents the result of an asynchronous operation, and can have two states: uncompleted or completed

So how can you work with futures ?

The async and await keywords provide a declarative way to define asynchronous functions and use their results. Remember these two basic guidelines when using async and await:

  • To define an async function, add async before the function body:
    Here is an example

  • The await keyword works only in async functions.

void main() async {
await flutter();
print('flutter Devs done');
}
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KUDOSS ✈️, you are now capable of some of the major concepts in dart

For more details about the null safety and asynchronous programming please head to dart.dev
Thank you πŸŽ‰

Top comments (2)

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divinirakiza profile image
Divin Irakiza

Great article.

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dmutoni profile image
Denyse Author

thank you

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