# Introduction

Python has a built-in `random`

library that provides various functions for performing stochastic operations. In this chapter, we'll explore some of the most commonly used functions in the `random`

library, including generating random numbers, making random choices, and shuffling sequences.

# Generating Random Numbers

Several functions are available to generate `random`

numbers, including `random`

, `uniform`

, `randint`

, and `randrange`

. Here's an example of using these functions to generate random numbers representing the roll of a die and the toss of a coin:

```
import random
# Generate a random integer between two values
min_die = 1
max_die = 6
die_roll = random.randint(a=min_die, b=max_die)
print(f"Die roll: {die_roll}")
```

```
Output:
Die roll: 4
```

```
# Generate a random choice from a sequence
coin_toss = random.choice(seq=["heads", "tails"])
print(f"Coin toss: {coin_toss}")
```

```
Output:
Coin toss: tails
```

# Making Random Choices

The `choice`

and `choices`

functions are available to make random selections from a sequence. Here's an example of using these functions to randomly select a card from a deck of cards:

```
import random
cards = ["Ace", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "Jack", "Queen", "King"]
# Make a random choice from a sequence
card = random.choice(seq=cards)
print(f"Randomly selected card: {card}")
```

```
Output:
Randomly selected card: 7
```

```
# Make multiple random choices from a sequence
num_choices = 5
cards = random.choices(population=cards, k=num_choices)
print(f"Randomly selected cards: {cards}")
```

```
Output:
Randomly selected cards: ['Queen', '3', 'King', '9', '8']
```

# Shuffling Sequences

The `shuffle`

function is available to shuffle a sequence in place randomly. Here's an example of using the `shuffle`

function to randomly shuffle a list of cards:

```
import random
cards = ["Ace", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "Jack", "Queen", "King"]
# Shuffle a sequence in place
random.shuffle(x=cards)
print(f"Shuffled cards: {cards}")
```

```
Output:
Shuffled cards: ['3', 'Queen', '8', '2', 'King', 'Jack', 'Ace', '9', '6', '7', '10', '5', '4']
```

# Conclusion

Whether you're simulating a game of chance or generating random data for a machine-learning model, the `random`

library is an essential tool for any Python programmer.

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