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Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS for Kubectl & Kustomize πŸ”§

davinkevin profile image Ξ›\: Davin Kevin ・6 min read

Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS (5 Part Series)

1) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS 2) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS - Common operations 3) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS & GitLab CI 🦊 4) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS for Kubernetes ☸️ 5) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS for Kubectl & Kustomize πŸ”§

In previous parts, we see how to manage our secrets in Kubernetes format directly from Git with SOPS. For that we use the standard Kubernetes format, and some SOPS parameters to encrypt only some keys. We will go further here and see how to do that with if we want to use kubectl -k or kustomize.

DISCLAIMER If you want to discover kustomize, I've written an article about it available here.

Simpler solutions

We will use here the solution provided by kubectl / kustomize to generate a secret from a secret generator (see the official documentation about it).
This solution induces two steps, one to decrypt the secret and another to produce the YAML.

πŸ“„ With files

SecretGenerator allows us to include secret from files. So, we can use SOPS to decrypt the file, and then we can use the files directive to include them into manifests.

Devon has the following files:

# kustomization.yaml
secretGenerator:
- name: app-secret
  files:
  - secret # sops encrypted file
  - another-secret # sops encrypted file

secret file before encryption:

TlZSNk1sRk9lR3RwTnpnNVdVWkVZUT09

And another-secret file before encryption:

CWNRUt3MPSTX3TizkhX2GVh5pN

After encryption with command sops -i -e secret, the file look like this:

# secret file
{
    "data": "ENC[AES256_GCM,data:FUiwHLcn9X1Js+4w5CxQ4Qh+SF3VC4AHGcxT9W3Taqmy,iv:Jh/QcOpcWelFr8cwpv2VtzJQ8/67aam9peVGImHZQdg=,tag:rzGayLJ1Blcymkk7R/Iq9A==,type:str]",
    "sops": {
        "kms": null,
        "gcp_kms": null,
        "azure_kv": null,
        "lastmodified": "2020-06-20T10:12:05Z",
        "mac": "ENC[AES256_GCM,data:3aHK0NLSTT+XdFi44y4xCAfoXy+1PSc+FVTkBe8EpGCl3HlROoUbdjj/nDJTaAHQBctGg1E2U0pSgY2cIx/tWHR61XCtAZf59CL2pzMNeSRSuwJr1Atqq0ltonk08VWDVQ4DpVWBRvUPl5oxAvZpPmSk0LeuHVGeqXO2cTNa5gs=,iv:zUpUHeXghIs+/9hsHQuZtZ5UcgBzC/sF1ccJ6JHzN/U=,tag:rcwzfioUgN6H4wLcZtcrQw==,type:str]",
        "pgp": [
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:04Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\n7VQQaUr53Gl2blMJJPBg\n=MdW8\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "5844C613B763F4374BAB2D2FC735658AB38BF93A"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:04Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\n9JiEUVhwnGheaWIIWHCc\n=cDXu\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "AE0D6FD0242FF896BE1E376B62E1E77388753B8E"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:04Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n\nhQGMA1ZWtaFCHvLMAQv+NkbxKcDPgNdtTs/n6OaXiFpCgCPRsjuXOmCFaZou33Od\ntNCPTHeAiMseq+Hxl3c0cdLh8wj1C5Sgqc6OBGaTOki3ZKfWA7H6DyPlbFR2d+af\nTZRQc6j7uGISJkPRVGQ5X5rJ1BcoT19rhUQm4vr3x3LHHbLvRXccKugiI7fxpDo4\nrVl7Dc9jhwz8XlV1WdalBeXvupvgxV+6aMqsnt6TFKc0vS/ECSRNoGD/cp2ZnEb8\nNRgIQXH7jv6cYSl1is7VIHvRIxyCukRznlQc6Bhcu/nDI2+vPJEIdiIX8qgG/AF7\nlfFPg8S6FALWcjNmCZksInIGltAIaQir0D2RxPfH7JdYu34c0TwgZCjMow1fBMiS\n82sa9cTWQStGh6lJALTlGWTmZeDtbL22+NX0tG0gtVGlnAmJqZbDCWunL61qrt1n\n1vvAPiYM/KZJOUibn5/gVyyb8PuVyY5Y0GahiTPPXL5h2gFo11xYpHsA9Ir0r9iB\nB2/9gyR8dqaI6xoLWJnc0l4BDdKoO+4+hhkkSneEC5FG6p0u0a2E+bjkfNKGuPas\nEnlIaWEYPh4Ndz2Km/GbII0kOuXvxdt9fxBTmB2k7/weDusUhNYY00sNxLd6rGW4\niQeX7+n5ajUO1efzqmXM\n=B2bM\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "3FF9E6938905023D25AB56EEFFEFFE9451381735"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:04Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\nvw3ZXpnrNX44jC4RZ8FX\n=NTXR\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "57E6DA39E907744429FB07871141FE9F63986243"
            }
        ],
        "unencrypted_suffix": "_unencrypted",
        "version": "3.5.0"
    }
}
# another-secret file
{
    "data": "ENC[AES256_GCM,data:5MqAdBMFuvXolRkAiiRZzEEaOt6Tm7HU1aOd,iv:7Z7DGCzH9pQJfuMKs9/BJWsHNfK2RX+xg4/GZgQXWxg=,tag:uXwTc+2fzXmixc27RuhhCQ==,type:str]",
    "sops": {
        "kms": null,
        "gcp_kms": null,
        "azure_kv": null,
        "lastmodified": "2020-06-20T10:12:08Z",
        "mac": "ENC[AES256_GCM,data:HMjZeBiuiN5oW6Z56Sd4O1+1stR7EyO1cNfAmlEUL8XSR97vSJ8mD+It0yZf7Y2/qcTBi1TQS+0Ic6YRL5RycBbRXzCwdVdAUsrQ0netosv1Zcz+jF+sRwzbtJY72hVA16XnAB/vGOBqdAOzzYt60yMI2Hw56AYvK2tnYihGJdk=,iv:bPdVIcUaNifmavFmcHroVU24dj6gqz3jLZHUIKupt5o=,tag:XucX0NIdbXxN3mNXE08Q8Q==,type:str]",
        "pgp": [
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:07Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\n/pRUsrtTnp8gZao/XjAR\n=Lj0c\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "5844C613B763F4374BAB2D2FC735658AB38BF93A"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:07Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\n2PolvaOWzvbCGu+DP4Ga\n=6Tfo\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "AE0D6FD0242FF896BE1E376B62E1E77388753B8E"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:07Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\ng6p/T5LaVdoreMBDcyy/\n=DSoD\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "3FF9E6938905023D25AB56EEFFEFFE9451381735"
            },
            {
                "created_at": "2020-06-20T10:12:07Z",
                "enc": "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\n+VWaRWaE+nTfH4wrXwDT\n=svPU\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n",
                "fp": "57E6DA39E907744429FB07871141FE9F63986243"
            }
        ],
        "unencrypted_suffix": "_unencrypted",
        "version": "3.5.0"
    }
}

After decryption of the secret and execution of the command kubectl apply -k . --dry-run -o yaml or kustomize build ., we have the following YAML

# Generated manifest
apiVersion: v1
data:
  another-secret: Q1dOUlV0M01QU1RYM1RpemtoWDJHVmg1cE4K
  secret: VGxaU05rMXNSazlsUjNSd1RucG5OVmRWV2tWWlVUMDkK
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: app-secret-8m97554t4c
  namespace: default
type: Opaque

You see here, the secret and another-secret keys used in the file kustomization.yaml ($.secretGenerator[*].files[*]) are both filenames on the file-system, and keys in the generated manifests ($.data[*]). This could lead to problems if key name can't be a file (unauthorized characters for example).

πŸ—‚ With .env files

A feature available into kustomize but not yet in kubectl (see issue) is the possibility to use .env file as secret source.

secretGenerator:
- name: app-secret
  envs:
  - secrets.env

The secrets.env before encryption:

secret=TlZSNk1sRk9lR3RwTnpnNVdVWkVZUT09
another-secret=CWNRUt3MPSTX3TizkhX2GVh5pN

After encryption with command sops -i -e secrets.env:

secret=ENC[AES256_GCM,data:LZxAINIj7/HOIqSJ/M1YTjGmjGIFk24KKEKyXxcFHvQ=,iv:OJNKetoqlJdmYKFpFsfr1ihQjpZ6nJfm8INW474EfE8=,tag:Ea8G+IGH+aORM0sePL9Njw==,type:str]
another-secret=ENC[AES256_GCM,data:OFgAiBkTzEjPwxpo0qn17wvSXm3T164f1Wg=,iv:+kvczR+vGDl6W/UG8KOl++cCKDmx3zA4cGC2vIsge7w=,tag:n7Qbs/I/qo4uy4FfCOMQkg==,type:str]
sops_pgp__list_3__map_fp=57E6DA39E907744429FB07871141FE9F63986243
sops_pgp__list_2__map_enc=-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n\nhQGMA1ZWtaFCHvLMAQv/S/gV3liTwmA8Rm3v08kjV39mfBF66mSbjgljoVMvlgoQ\nZ6l2djvzUfzTpgdfACwVVbzQ+KWYfYWnHtOlEHKGQ1abi4Ik/WRS9J6xfzf0aPj0\n9GAy43wCqblvKLKBPHzfYXsQQLP/IA3gHgj1T0hRMx0Nbv+bHi16DEilzxyhCQQf\nzV+w0IMfF1CJrTvTgn4ohaN1KvuQcqOJNlWyr0/fIL420QYL09rQvjA20ds8Jwaq\nZ61O6XOtjyCVAB1nAYfCIOtd0t/+ApnI6Qwe5FKKcN1GrCiqJ4rt4mCK9/nLRcqg\nF1h825h5yuAWYjIyIb8zbulfLxUUN8ztbn4myIUKTcXu+Onq6dq2jaCKOceVc90m\njpXwvcDKYRdeG1HUcmOeQu9ioyt+4xGxOkWY8/hg1YJp9lA+/n4uU5OE9Su0o8LP\n71EzXfISx2PeROkY2W83e8qhzgQQNsCOI9Y5k8Tmd8ctgI4i9Pw0j1S2+sdiD5Y9\njOW7hPVLNiQ/avAkfKVr0lwBZSwkvC3d0Rbw4Wskj8/meRNMYf8DsbFOYi05ysjO\nwTvWQFYPy4cvMtaIvMKn05f+dQIm/6jwOwu6tyytKxqYuq/vEPOrUMQU72wA25eS\nTyXEd7AjE4boT/hQ9g==\n=gUpS\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n
sops_pgp__list_3__map_enc=-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\nourCUh/MJPpDz3R6Cg==\n=D5A/\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n
sops_pgp__list_1__map_enc=-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\ncrToyqNOO5+HxrSIJg==\n=3esV\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n
sops_pgp__list_1__map_fp=AE0D6FD0242FF896BE1E376B62E1E77388753B8E
sops_pgp__list_2__map_created_at=2020-06-20T10:30:18Z
sops_pgp__list_0__map_created_at=2020-06-20T10:30:18Z
sops_pgp__list_0__map_fp=5844C613B763F4374BAB2D2FC735658AB38BF93A
sops_unencrypted_suffix=_unencrypted
sops_lastmodified=2020-06-20T10:30:19Z
sops_pgp__list_3__map_created_at=2020-06-20T10:30:18Z
sops_pgp__list_2__map_fp=3FF9E6938905023D25AB56EEFFEFFE9451381735
sops_version=3.5.0
sops_pgp__list_0__map_enc=-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\n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\nROm168cPbVF+K2BTTQ==\n=Pdik\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----\n
sops_mac=ENC[AES256_GCM,data:kXxkiJmgK5nyDiEwStytEHwKLw5JIN1Y1xiNUAXKJLNGEk4VyZ+VkqMNBcUED8HQycHIRle550/Mtov4aVtviM9jM7MnTMIdtg/bp6f0AKiXcl5nCWt26b3JP2nvLN/COMUnvxHxW3uwhdnrsJupBMNDSVdDOv2wXbyazfuor+U=,iv:LR2dRc054UDQoWCVJ+bynri5j5zFKvE69ggLh19sXLY=,tag:nvYpc7ez5Hb4jYLNUnd9Fw==,type:str]
sops_pgp__list_1__map_created_at=2020-06-20T10:30:18Z

After decryption of the secrets.env and execution of the command kustomize build ., we have the following YAML

apiVersion: v1
data:
  another-secret: Q1dOUlV0M01QU1RYM1RpemtoWDJHVmg1cE4=
  secret: VGxaU05rMXNSazlsUjNSd1RucG5OVmRWV2tWWlVUMDk=
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: app-secret-4g57fkmb8b
type: Opaque

Both way can be used without any problem (files or envs). This depends of the restriction on tooling you have to generate/deploy your manifests.

πŸ”§ Alternative with Kustomize Plugins

The main goal about using the kustomize plugin system is to be able to remove the step of files decryption before manifests creation. Thanks to that, you will be able to use SOPS secrets with some tools like skaffold and or others usingkustomize under the hood.

kustomize has two plugins system (official plugin documentation)

  • native Go extension
  • exec shell extension

This native solution is very useful because all can be done directly from kustomize code, and we don't need to have SOPS installed (for local or CI execution).

But this solution is complex and requires compiling kustomize & plugins from sources πŸ˜“... with all the Go build system. There is some SOPS plugins available:

The shell solution is simpler to manage, but it will require installing SOPS or other binary to perform decrypt operation. I found only one implementation of shell plugin for kustomize available: kustomize-sopssecretgenerator

Both solutions have another downside, it requires extracting secrets configuration outside the kustomization.yaml (in a generator.yaml file), so it multiplies files and make it harder to read / manage πŸ˜“. Depending on your needs, I advise you to use KSOPS or kustomize-sopssecretgenerator.

πŸ” Conclusion

We have seen here a β€œsimpler” solution to manage our secret and to use them with Kubernetes relying on the builtin Kustomize system. The plugin ecosystem is still young, so I hope integrations will be simpler in futur.

You can find the source code of this article, files and scripts in this GitLab repository.

Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS (5 Part Series)

1) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS 2) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS - Common operations 3) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS & GitLab CI 🦊 4) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS for Kubernetes ☸️ 5) Manage your secrets in Git with SOPS for Kubectl & Kustomize πŸ”§

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Ξ›\: Davin Kevin

@davinkevin

Google Developer Expert on Google Cloud ☁️ | GitLab Heroes 🦊 | An endless learner, code addict ❀️, and Open-Source Contributor!

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