Link to challenge on Advent of Code 2021 website

## Loading the data

The data comes as a text file with two distinct chunks. The first line is a comma-separated list of numbers that will be used for bingo number draws. The rest of the file contains several bingo grids.

An example of the data is:

```
7,4,9,5,11,17,23,2,0,14,21,24,10,16,13,6,15,25,12,22,18,20,8,19,3,26,1
22 13 17 11 0
8 2 23 4 24
21 9 14 16 7
6 10 3 18 5
1 12 20 15 19
3 15 0 2 22
9 18 13 17 5
19 8 7 25 23
20 11 10 24 4
14 21 16 12 6
14 21 17 24 4
10 16 15 9 19
18 8 23 26 20
22 11 13 6 5
2 0 12 3 7
```

The draws can be read easily using a single `fp.readline()`

which reads a single line of text from an open file. We can `.split(",")`

this string to chop it up into individual values, and then we can apply `int()`

to each of those elements (using `map()`

) to turn it back into a number. (the extra `list()`

is needed to turn the iterator returned by `map()`

into an actual list, since we have to use this list twice.

```
with open("day_4.txt") as fp:
draws = list(map(int, fp.readline().split(",")))
```

The bingo boards themselves, we can read in using numpy's `np.mat()`

function, which takes a space/semicolon separated string and turns it into a numpy matrix. For example: `np.mat("1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9")`

returns a 3x3 matrix with those numbers in it.

So we use `fp.read()`

which by default reads all the lines of the open file as an array of strings, and split it using double newlines: `fp.read()[1:-1].split("\n\n")`

(we have to ignore the first and last entry of the file to avoid the empty lines

This will return an array of board strings, for example:

```
[
'90 8 2 34 41\n11 67 74 71 62\n47 42 44 1 17\n21 55 12 91 6\n60 69 75 92 56',
'49 29 60 45 31\n94 51 73 33 67\n21 92 53 95 96\n 2 55 52 8 87\n 4 36 76 83 42', '23 66 50 84 58\n62 98 81 76 57\n24 2 56 79 6\n55 0 16 64 38\n12 67 5 97 60',
```

From there we can replace the newlines with semicolons, and put it through `np.mat()`

to retrieve a numpy matrix of the data.

The final import code is:

```
with open("day_4.txt") as fp:
draws = list(map(int, fp.readline().split(",")))
boards = [np.mat(board.replace("\n", ";")) for board in fp.read()[1:-1].split("\n\n")]
```

## Part 1

Part 1 asks which board will win at bingo. So we will play bingo, iterating over each draw, and each board, and "marking" the matching values.

Fortunately, numpy has a useful feature called `masked_array()`

which will maintain a matrix or array and a mask, allowing you to easily mask the data or get the sum of unmasked data.

We can construct a masked array using `np.ma.masked_array(board)`

which initializes the mask to all `False`

. We'll use `False`

as meaning "not yet drawn", and `True`

as "drawn".

To work out whether a drawn number `draw`

is inside the mask, we can do `board.data == draw`

(`board.data`

in a masked array is the original unmasked data) this will return a 5x5 matrix of `False`

or `True`

if that element matches. So something like:

```
matrix([[False, False, False, False, False],
[False, False, False, False, False],
[False, True, False, False, False],
[False, False, False, False, False],
[False, False, False, False, False]])
```

We can use this to directly update the mask, using a boolean operation: `board.mask |= board.data == draw`

. This will perform a binary OR operation between the above, and the current mask. In effect, it'll turn the mask to `True`

for any value matching the draw. As the game progresses, more and more of the mask will be turned to `True`

.

To work out whether we have a win, we can use numpy's `sum(axis)`

method to sum the mask along certain axes. It'll do all five rows or columns at once. so, `board.mask.sum(0)`

will give us how many masked values are in each column. If the mask was the above, then:

board.mask.sum(0):

```
matrix([[0, 1, 0, 0, 0]])
```

board.mask.sum(1):

```
matrix([[0],
[0],
[1],
[0],
[0]])
```

It can be seen that if any of these row or column sums reaches 5, then there is a bingo. So to test for both, we can check if any of the values returned is a 0: `if np.any(board.mask.sum(0) == 5) or np.any(board.mask.sum(5) == 0):`

The code is therefore:

```
for draw, board in product(draws, [np.ma.masked_array(board) for board in boards]):
board.mask |= board.data == draw
if np.any(board.mask.sum(0) == 5) or np.any(board.mask.sum(1) == 5):
result = board.sum()*draw
break
```

Here, we're using `itertools.product`

to combine the `for`

loops for both the `draw`

and the `board`

, this makes it a bit easier to break out of the loop.

The question calls for the sum of the remaining undrawn numbers. multiplied by the last drawn number. Numpy's masked arrays have a `sum()`

method which will sum unmasked numbers directly, so the result can be simply calculated above as `board.sum()*draw`

## Part 2

In part 2, it asks which is the board that will win last if the game continues even if boards have a bingo. To this we can reuse the above, but track which boards have won, and pull out the last board to win.

Only a few modifications are needed:

```
won_boards = set()
for draw, (idx, board) in product(draws, enumerate([np.ma.masked_array(board) for board in boards])):
board.mask |= board.data == draw
if np.any(board.mask.sum(0) == 5) or np.any(board.mask.sum(1) == 5):
if idx not in won_boards and len(won_boards) == len(boards) -1:
result = board.sum()*draw
break
won_boards.add(idx)
```

Firstly, boards that have won are tracked in the `won_boards`

set. Next, we also fetch the index number of the board using an `enumerate()`

on the boards. This index is what is added to `won_boards`

if the board wins. Then, the last win can be detected using `if idx not in won_boards and len(won_boards) == len(boards) -1:`

, giving us the result of the last win.

## Full Code

```
import numpy as np
from itertools import product
with open("day_4.txt") as fp:
draws = list(map(int, fp.readline().split(",")))
boards = [np.mat(board.replace("\n", ";")) for board in fp.read()[1:-1].split("\n\n")]
for draw, board in product(draws, [np.ma.masked_array(board) for board in boards]):
board.mask |= board.data == draw
if np.any(board.mask.sum(0) == 5) or np.any(board.mask.sum(1) == 5):
result = board.sum()*draw
break
print("Part 1 result:", result)
won_boards = set()
for draw, (idx, board) in product(draws, enumerate([np.ma.masked_array(board) for board in boards])):
board.mask |= board.data == draw
if np.any(board.mask.sum(0) == 5) or np.any(board.mask.sum(1) == 5):
if idx not in won_boards and len(won_boards) == len(boards) -1:
result = board.sum()*draw
break
won_boards.add(idx)
print("Part 2 result:", result)
```

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