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Get started with FastAPI JWT authentication – Part 2

rohanshiva profile image Rohan Updated on ・5 min read

This is the second of a two part series on implementing authorization in a FastAPI application using Deta. In the previous article, we learned a bit about JWT, set up the project, and finished the building blocks of authorization logic. In this article, let's implement the logic, and deploy our app on Deta micros! The full code is available here.

Implementing the auth logic

Before we implement the auth logic, let's create a data model for login and signup details.

In user_model.py :

from pydantic import BaseModel

class AuthModel(BaseModel):
    username: str
    password: str
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This model represents the data that we can expect from the client when they hit /login or /signup endpoints.

Update the main.py , with the following import statements

from auth import Auth
from user_model import AuthModel
from fastapi import FastAPI, HTTPException, Security
from fastapi.security import HTTPAuthorizationCredentials, HTTPBearer
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Also, we will create an auth_handler to access the logic from the Auth class. We will use security in our protected endpoints to access the token from the request header.

security = HTTPBearer()
auth_handler = Auth()
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Here is the code for /signup endpoint.

@app.post('/signup')
def signup(user_details: AuthModel):
    if users_db.get(user_details.username) != None:
        return 'Account already exists'
    try:
        hashed_password = auth_handler.encode_password(user_details.password)
        user = {'key': user_details.username, 'password': hashed_password}
        return users_db.put(user)
    except:
        error_msg = 'Failed to signup user'
        return error_msg
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In this function we are checking if a user with the username already exists in our users_db. If so, we can simply return a message indicating that the account already exists. If the user doesn't already exists we can hash the password using the encode_password function from auth.py and store the user in users_db. In case of any errors while adding the user to the base, we can return a failure message.

/login endpoint is pretty simple. This also takes in the argument user_details , which has the username and password.

@app.post('/login')
def login(user_details: AuthModel):
    user = users_db.get(user_details.username)
    if (user is None):
        return HTTPException(status_code=401, detail='Invalid username')
    if (not auth_handler.verify_password(user_details.password, user['password'])):
        return HTTPException(status_code=401, detail='Invalid password')

    access_token = auth_handler.encode_token(user['key'])
    refresh_token = auth_handler.encode_refresh_token(user['key'])
    return {'access_token': access_token, 'refresh_token': refresh_token}
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If the account with the username doesn't exist, or if the hashed password in the users_db doesn't match the input password we can simply raise an HTTPException. Otherwise, we can return access_token and refresh_token.

@app.post('/secret')
def secret_data(credentials: HTTPAuthorizationCredentials = Security(security)):
    token = credentials.credentials
    if(auth_handler.decode_token(token)):
        return 'Top Secret data only authorized users can access this info'

@app.get('/notsecret')
def not_secret_data():
    return 'Not secret data'
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The /secret endpoint only returns the "Secret Data" if the token argument is valid. However, if the token is invalid or an expired token, then decode_token raises a HTTPException. The token is usually passed in the request header as Authorization: Bearer <token>. Therefore, to get the token we can wrap the input credentials around HTTPAuthorizationCredentials tag. Now we can access the token from the request header in credentials.credentials.

The /not_secret endpoint is an example of an unprotected endpoint, which doesn't require any authentication.

@app.get('/refresh_token')
def refresh_token(credentials: HTTPAuthorizationCredentials = Security(security)):
    refresh_token = credentials.credentials
    new_token = auth_handler.refresh_token(refresh_token)
    return {'access_token': new_token}
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/refresh_token endpoint is also pretty simple, it receives a refresh token which is then passed onto the the function from auth logic to get a new token.

Here is a look at main.py at the end:

from fastapi import FastAPI, HTTPException, Security
from fastapi.security import HTTPAuthorizationCredentials, HTTPBearer
from auth import Auth
from deta import Deta
from user_model import AuthModel

deta = Deta()
users_db = deta.Base('users')

app = FastAPI()

security = HTTPBearer()
auth_handler = Auth()

@app.post('/signup')
def signup(user_details: AuthModel):
    if users_db.get(user_details.username) != None:
        return 'Account already exists'
    try:
        hashed_password = auth_handler.encode_password(user_details.password)
        user = {'key': user_details.username, 'password': hashed_password}
        return users_db.put(user)
    except:
        error_msg = 'Failed to signup user'
        return error_msg

@app.post('/login')
def login(user_details: AuthModel):
    user = users_db.get(user_details.username)
    if (user is None):
        return HTTPException(status_code=401, detail='Invalid username')
    if (not auth_handler.verify_password(user_details.password, user['password'])):
        return HTTPException(status_code=401, detail='Invalid password')

    access_token = auth_handler.encode_token(user['key'])
    refresh_token = auth_handler.encode_refresh_token(user['key'])
    return {'access_token': access_token, 'refresh_token': refresh_token}

@app.get('/refresh_token')
def refresh_token(credentials: HTTPAuthorizationCredentials = Security(security)):
    refresh_token = credentials.credentials
    new_token = auth_handler.refresh_token(refresh_token)
    return {'access_token': new_token}

@app.post('/secret')
def secret_data(credentials: HTTPAuthorizationCredentials = Security(security)):
    token = credentials.credentials
    if(auth_handler.decode_token(token)):
        return 'Top Secret data only authorized users can access this info'

@app.get('/notsecret')
def not_secret_data():
    return 'Not secret data'
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To test the app, go to the terminal in the same directory and run uvicorn main:app, you can then go /docs on the local endpoint (for me it was http://127.0.0.1:8000/docs) to test the application.

/signup

curl -X 'POST' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/signup' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -d '{
  "username": "flyingsponge",
  "password": "SpongePassword"
}'

Response Body
{
  "key": "flyingsponge",
  "password": "$2b$12$Ml66gTN0j4sAOkoDJ1aKnOmP0ye1FBNNk1QzEt0/6LgemgOUj469e"
}
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/login

curl -X 'POST' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/login' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -d '{
  "username": "flyingsponge",
  "password": "SpongePassword"
}'

Response Body
{
  "access_token": "eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTkwMTY4MzgsImlhdCI6MTYxOTAxNTAzOCwic3ViIjoiZmx5aW5nc3BvbmdlIn0.XnPaDwmj30M3vMOaPUOrqESIBNx0mctbjNW5jY8hIjQ",
  "refresh_token": "eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTkwNTEwMzgsImlhdCI6MTYxOTAxNTAzOCwic3ViIjoiZmx5aW5nc3BvbmdlIn0.Pm68HQFM6NwUxnEjFUxxTiOYT3KBqchD_e2g0LfP5Co"
}
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/secret

curl -X 'POST' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/secret' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTkwMTY2MTIsImlhdCI6MTYxOTAxNDgxMiwic3ViIjoicmFta2kifQ.U8fUN1x1Gz18f7oA_y7Z9DE-1FIH9Ps0sDilwORvmI8' \
  -d ''

Response body
"Top Secret data only authorized users can access this info"
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/notsecret

curl -X 'GET' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/notsecret' \
  -H 'accept: application/json'

Response Body
"Not secret data"
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/secret

curl -X 'POST' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/secret' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTg5MzU3MzcsImlhdCI6MTYxODkzNTY3Nywic3ViIjoicm9oYW4ifQ.dja0E6SUaZfEvYVKySjLE9OLXOtob5pjpy3R_rlCD7c' \
  -d ''
Response Body
{
  "detail": "Token expired"
}
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Now that the token is expired, let's get a new one

/refresh_token

curl -X 'GET' \
  'http://127.0.0.1:8000/refresh_token' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTkwNTA3NzYsImlhdCI6MTYxOTAxNDc3Niwic3ViIjoicmFta2kifQ.2J0O4RKwEcABxe6hEX7ZshMo66J6D0dD6-hYeFLBFGg'
Response Body
{
  "access_token": "eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MTkwMTY2MTIsImlhdCI6MTYxOTAxNDgxMiwic3ViIjoicmFta2kifQ.U8fUN1x1Gz18f7oA_y7Z9DE-1FIH9Ps0sDilwORvmI8"
}
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Deploy on Deta micros

Before we begin, make sure to install the Deta CLI. After installing, run the following commands in the same directory to deploy our app on Deta micros.

deta login
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We also need to add a .env file with the secret.

APP_SECRET_STRING=SECRET_STRING
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Now we need to update our micro by doing:

deta new 
deta update -e .env
deta deploy
deta visor disable
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Summary

Our simple FastAPI application with JWT auth is now ready! As you can probably tell, we are not doing anything "secret" with our authorization. This article is just a template for implementing authorization. You can build on this template to build a fullstack application that relies on authorization. The full code is available here.

Link to the first article!

Discussion (6)

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rabbitix profile image
Ali Fazeli

hey thanks for the article..

after i deploy on Deta, and get my access token, and send request to /secret , it says "Not authenticated" !

i cloned your code, add my project-secret-key,deploy it , but it doesn't work.. (the api works, auth part not working)

what should i do?

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rohanshiva profile image
Rohan Author

Can you run deta visor disable and see if that works?

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rabbitix profile image
Ali Fazeli

yeah man, it works..
thanks . :D

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hy86592 profile image
hy86592

Great tutorial. Thank you. I just have one issue: I cloned your code and ran the app. I get an error:

File "./main.py", line 36, in login
access_token = auth_handler.encode_token(user['key'])

"TypeError: Expected a string value"

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hy86592 profile image
hy86592

Nevermind, this was because I did not set the APP_SECRET_STRING value.

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gjeotech profile image
gjeo@inten

Nice explanation and work done . keep it up!

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