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Bahman Shadmehr
Bahman Shadmehr

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Optimizing Memory Usage with the Flyweight Design Pattern in Python


In the world of software design patterns, the Flyweight pattern emerges as a memory-saving solution to manage a large number of objects efficiently. This structural pattern focuses on sharing data between objects to minimize memory consumption. In this blog post, we'll explore the Flyweight Design Pattern through a real-world example involving text formatting, and demonstrate its implementation in Python.

Understanding the Flyweight Design Pattern

Imagine you're dealing with a scenario where you need to create a substantial number of similar objects, and memory consumption becomes a concern. The Flyweight Design Pattern comes into play by allowing you to share common data between these objects. By separating intrinsic (shared) and extrinsic (unique) data, the pattern reduces memory overhead and optimizes performance.

The Flyweight pattern is your ally when you're dealing with a large number of similar objects and need to save memory.

Key Concepts and Components

The Flyweight Design Pattern comprises the following key components:

  1. Flyweight: This is the interface or abstract class that defines the methods that concrete flyweights must implement.

  2. Concrete Flyweight: The concrete class that implements the Flyweight interface. It contains intrinsic (shared) data.

  3. Flyweight Factory: This class manages and creates flyweights. It ensures that flyweights are shared and reused when possible.

Example Implementation in Python

Let's illustrate the Flyweight pattern with an example involving formatted text. We'll create flyweights for different text formats (bold, italic) and use a factory to manage and create them.

import sqlite3
import threading
import time

class DatabaseConnection:
    def __init__(self, db_name):
        self.connection = sqlite3.connect(db_name)

    def execute_query(self, query):
        cursor = self.connection.cursor()
        result = cursor.fetchall()
        return result

class DatabaseConnectionPool:
    _lock = threading.Lock()
    _connections = {}

    def get_connection(db_name):
        if db_name not in DatabaseConnectionPool._connections:
            with DatabaseConnectionPool._lock:
                if db_name not in DatabaseConnectionPool._connections:
                    DatabaseConnectionPool._connections[db_name] = DatabaseConnection(db_name)

        return DatabaseConnectionPool._connections[db_name]

# Client code
def run_query(db_name, query):
    connection = DatabaseConnectionPool.get_connection(db_name)
    result = connection.execute_query(query)
    print(f"Query Result for '{query}': {result}")

if __name__ == "__main__":
    db_name = "example.db"
    queries = ["SELECT * FROM users", "SELECT * FROM orders", "SELECT * FROM products"]

    threads = []
    for query in queries:
        thread = threading.Thread(target=run_query, args=(db_name, query))

    for thread in threads:

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Benefits of the Flyweight Pattern

  1. Memory Efficiency: The Flyweight pattern minimizes memory consumption by sharing common data among similar objects.

  2. Performance Optimization: Reduced memory overhead leads to improved performance in scenarios with a large number of objects.

  3. Resource Conservation: The pattern conserves system resources by avoiding redundant object creation.

  4. Scalability: The Flyweight pattern is particularly useful in situations where the number of objects can grow significantly.


The Flyweight Design Pattern is a valuable tool for optimizing memory usage when dealing with a multitude of similar objects. By sharing intrinsic data among objects and using a flyweight factory to manage them, the pattern reduces memory overhead and enhances performance. In Python, incorporating the Flyweight pattern into scenarios involving resource-intensive objects can lead to more efficient and scalable software solutions. As you embrace the Flyweight pattern, you'll be better equipped to manage large volumes of objects without compromising memory and performance.

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