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Abhinav Pandey

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# Go Basics: Functions

In the last article, we discussed the syntax of variables and constants. Now let's look at the syntax of functions in Go and their variations.

## Functions

Functions are declared using the `func` keyword.
You may have seen the function syntax in the previous article. Let's revisit it.

``````// function that takes two integers and returns their sum
func square(a int) int {
return a*a
}

//main function calling square
func main() {
fmt.Println(square(2))
}
``````
• The function is declared with the return type `int` and the function name `square`.
• It has one parameter `a` of type `int`.
• The function body is enclosed in curly braces `{}`.
• The return statement is used to return the value of the expression.
• The call to the function is simply `square(2)` - Similar to other languages.

Now let's look at some variations of the function syntax.

Function with multiple parameters

``````func add(a, b int) int {
return a + b
}
``````

Since both parameters are of type `int`, they can be declared comma separated.

Functions with different types of parameters

``````func add(a, b int, c float64) int {
return a + b + int(c)
}
``````

The function accepts three parameters. The first two are of type `int` and the last one is of type `float64`.
When a parameter is of a different type than the next one, it is mandatory to declare its type.

Function with multiple return values
Unlike other languages like Java, it is possible to return multiple values from a function. To do so, we need to define the return type of all return values as a tuple.

``````func sumAndDiff(a, b int) (int, int) {
return a + b, a - b
}
func main() {
sum, difference := sumAndDiff(10, 5)
fmt.Println(sum, difference)
}
``````

Two return values are declared. Both of them are of type `int`. Notice the return statement - it returns two values.
Notice how the function call is written as `sumAndDiff(10, 5)` and two return values are assigned to the variables `sum` and `difference`.

Function with named return values

``````func sumAndDiff(a, b int) (sum int, difference int) {
sum = a + b
difference = a - b
return
}
``````

The return values are declared with the names `sum` and `difference`. The return statement returns the values of the variables `sum` and `difference` but does not need to mention them.
This is useful when you are creating temporary variables to hold the return values till the end of the function.

Function with a variable number of parameters

``````func add(nums ...int) int {
sum := 0
//loop over nums and add them to sum
for _, num := range nums {
sum += num
}
return sum
}

func main() {
}

``````

The function accepts a variable number of parameters. The parameters are of type `int`.
The `...` operator is used to indicate that the function accepts a variable number of parameters.

Notice how in the function call, we have sent 5 values.

Note: The `_` in the for loop is a placeholder for the index of the number returned. We will talk more about `for` loop variations later.

This should give an idea of function syntax in Go. Stay tuned for more on Go syntax.

Thanks for reading. If you want to connect with me, you can find me on Twitter @abh1navv.