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Install Rancher K3s on Raspberry Pi Cluster

zachinachshon profile image ZachiNachshon Originally published at blog.zachinachshon.com ・7 min read

Credits: Logo by cncf-branding

Install a Rancher Labs Kubernetes distribution (k3s) on a Raspberry Pi cluster.

 

Note: This post refers to laptop / desktop as client machines. These are the clients used to connect to the Raspberry Pi master / worker nodes remotely.

 

Prerequisites

 

rpi-cluster-numbered

 

Master Server

What is a Kubernetes master node? A master node is a server that controls and manages a set of worker nodes, in our case it is the Raspberry Pi that controls the rest of the Raspberry Pi(s) on our cluster.

Install

  1. SSH into the Raspberry Pi server that is intended to operate as the Kubernetes master. It should be the one named kmaster as instructed by this post

    # Connect to RPi server that operates as the k8s master
    ssh pi@kmaster
    

     

  2. Run the following command to install a plain version of k3s without traefik load balancer and k8s-dashboard

    curl -sfL https://get.k3s.io | INSTALL_K3S_EXEC=" --no-deploy traefik --no-deploy kubernetes-dashboard"  sh -
    

     

    Note: We will install a plain version of k3s without Traefik load balancer and/or Kubernetes dashboard. These should be covered by other dedicated blog posts.

  3. Verify that k3s was installed successfully. Run the following commands from within the RPi master server

    # Check for status - active (running)
    sudo systemctl status k3s
    
    # Check for status - Ready
    sudo kubectl get nodes
    
    # Optional - check that there are no error logs
    tail -f /var/log/syslog
    

     

  4. (Optional): Run when in need to restart k3s

    # Restart k3s
    sudo systemctl restart k3s
    

     

    Note: The k3s service is automatically started and restarted during installation. The install script will install k3s and additional utilities, such as kubectl, crictl, k3s-killall.sh, and k3s-uninstall.sh.

    Note: During installation kubectl on the master server will be aliased to the command k3s kubectl so that we can use the pre-packaged version of kubectl. k3s uses a container runtime called containerd directly (no docker), interact using crictl.

 

Uninstall

  1. SSH into the k3s master server

    ssh pi@kmaster
    

     

  2. Uninstall k3s by executing the following script:

    /usr/local/bin/k3s-uninstall.sh
    

     

    Note: Rancher k3s service configuration can be found at /etc/rancher/k3s/k3s.yaml.

    Note: Container runtime containerd configuration can be found at /var/lib/rancher/k3s/agent/etc/containerd/config.toml.


Worker Node

What is a Kubernetes worker node? These are Raspberry Pi servers that act as workload runtimes i.e. run our applications, jobs, whatever we require them to run but they aren't the ones that manage the cluster, just the ones that "get the job done".

Join a Cluster

  1. Extract the k3s join cluster token

    # SSH to the RPi master server
    ssh pi@kmaster
    
    # Extract the join token
    sudo cat /var/lib/rancher/k3s/server/node-token
    
    # Alternatively, you can run this on-liner directly from a client machine
    ssh pi@kmaster "sudo cat /var/lib/rancher/k3s/server/node-token"
    

     

  2. Find the k3s master server IP address that is assigned to kmaster, either from the server itself or from a client machine if you've followed this post

    # From the RPi master server
    ip addr show eth0 | grep "inet\b" | awk '{print $2}' | cut -d/ -f1
    
    # Alternatively, from a client machine
    cat /etc/hosts | grep kmaster | awk '{print $1}'
    

     

  3. SSH into a Raspberry Pi server intended to be used as a Kubernetes worker node. It would be the one named knode<number> as instructed on this post

    # Connect to a k3s worker node
    ssh pi@knode<number>  
    

     

  4. Run the following command to install k3s-agent and join the worker node to an existing cluster

    # Replace MASTER-IP-ADDRESS with the master server IP address from previous step
    # Replace JOIN-TOKEN with the join token from previous step
    curl -sfL http://get.k3s.io | K3S_URL=https://<MASTER-IP-ADDRESS>:6443 \
    K3S_TOKEN=<JOIN-TOKEN> sh -
    

     

  5. Verify that k3s-agent was installed successfully. Run the following commands from within the RPi worker server

    # Check for status - active (running)
    sudo systemctl status k3s-agent
    
    # Optional - check that there are no error logs
    tail -f /var/log/syslog
    

     

  6. Repeat the above steps for every Raspberry Pi board intended to be used as a Kubernetes worker node

 

Uninstall

  1. SSH into the k3s worker node

    ssh pi@knode<number>
    

     

  2. Uninstall k3s-agent by executing the following script:

    /usr/local/bin/k3s-agent-uninstall.sh
    

     


Utilities

These are common utilities that should get installed on client machines to interacts with k3s master server.

Why do I need to install them?
You'll want to interacts with Kubernetes in order to deploy services, execute Helm charts and/or use utilities that grant you cluster visibility.

Note: If you are planning to interact with k3s on a CI environment, make sure that the agent image you are using in the pipeline includes utilities such as kubectl.

 

kubectl

Install kubectl, a command-line-interface tool that allows you to run commands against a remote k3s cluster.

  1. On a client machine, create a new empty k3s config file

    mkdir -p $HOME/.kube/k3s 
    touch $HOME/.kube/k3s/config
    chmod 600 $HOME/.kube/k3s/config  # Set limited user permissions
    

     

  2. Copy the k3s cluster configuration from the RPi master server

    ssh pi@kmaster "sudo cat /etc/rancher/k3s/k3s.yaml" > $HOME/.kube/k3s/config
    

     

  3. Edit the k3s config file on the client machine and change the remote IP address of the k3s master from localhost/127.0.0.1 to kmaster

    # Edit master config
    vim $HOME/.kube/k3s/config
    
    # Search for the 'server' attribute located in - 
    # clusters:
    # - cluster:
    #   server: https://127.0.0.1:6443 or https://localhost:6443
    #
    # Change 'server' value to https://kmaster:6443
    

     

    Note: Make sure kmaster is properly defined as a host name in /etc/hosts, otherwise - use the RPi master server IP address.

  4. Install kubectl as described in the official docs

    # tl;dr - macOS only
    brew install kubectl
    
    # Verify client version
    kubectl version --client
    

     

  5. Export k3s config file path as KUBECONFIG environment variable and by doing that set the kubectl context to use the RPi k3s cluster

    export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/.kube/k3s/config
    

     

    Note: Add the export command into a .bash_profile / .bashrc file. This way every new shell session would have the k3s cluster config set as the kubectl active context. Optional: check this post to manage your dotfiles in style.

  6. Verify that kubectl was installed properly and can communicate with the RPi master server

    kubectl get nodes
    
    # Expect the following respones as success:
    #
    # NAME      STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
    # knodeX    Ready    <none>                 10m   v1.20.4+k3s1
    # ...
    # knode1    Ready    <none>                 23m   v1.20.4+k3s1
    # kmaster   Ready    control-plane,master   52m   v1.20.4+k3s1
    

     

  7. (Optional): read here for additional information about kubectl

 

k9s

Install k9s, a terminal UI that interacts with the k3s cluster, increase velocity by saving you from typing repetitive commands and/or the need to alias common ones. It allows easy navigation, observation and management - all in one package.

  1. Install as instructed on the official repository docs

    # tl;dr for macOS
    brew install k9s
    

     

    Note: Make sure $KUBECONFIG is properly defined and set to k3s config path.

  2. In case you are working on a single cluster and it is the default one, move to the next step, otherwise, if you are working on multiple clusters and/or using a cluster which isn't named default, change the currentContext and currentCluster attributes on the k9s config file to the proper cluster values.

    Note: k9s configuration file can be found at $HOME/.k9s/config.yml

  3. Run k9s on a fresh shell session and verify that you can connect the k3s cluster successfully

  4. (Optional): read here for additional information about k9s

 


Summary

Well done for successfully installing a Kubernetes cluster on top of your Raspberry Pi cluster ! 👏

What now? Check back for future posts explaining how to install a load balancer, certificate manager and a private docker registry on that cluster.

Please leave your comment, suggestion or any other input you think is relevant to this post in the discussion below.


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Thanks for reading! ❤️

Discussion (1)

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brandon_wallace

Super awesome post! Thanks for sharing.