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How to build production-ready application with Django and PostgreSQL

xarala221 profile image Ousseynou Diop Updated on ・4 min read

Originally posted on my blog

Introduction

Build basic application everyone can do it but build real world production-ready application require lot of work.

In this guide i will show you how to build production-ready application with Django and Postgresql.

Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design.

RDBMS is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd.

PostgreSQL is The World's Most Advanced Open Source Relational Database.

Prerequisites

I assume that you've some basic knowledge of Django and want to know how to make your application production-ready.

Installation

The first step in this guide is to install the pieces we need in order to use postgresql.

The following command will install all packages

sudo apt install python3-pip python3-dev libpq-dev postgresql postgresql-contrib
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I will use pipenv for dependencies management.

This command will install pipenv on your system

pip install --user pipenv
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New Django project

Create a new folder and call it what you want

$ mkdir django_postgres
$ cd django_postgres
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Create a virtual environment with pipenv

$ pipenv shell
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Here is the output of the command

Creating a virtualenv for this project…
Using /usr/bin/python3 (3.7.5) to create virtualenv…
⠋Already using interpreter /usr/bin/python3
Using base prefix '/usr'
New python executable in /home/username/.local/share/virtualenvs/django_postgres-6CspIPh4/bin/python3
Also creating executable in /home/username/.local/share/virtualenvs/django_postgres-6CspIPh4/bin/python
Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...
done.

Virtualenv location: /home/username/.local/share/virtualenvs/django_postgres-6CspIPh4
Creating a Pipfile for this project…
Spawning environment shell (/usr/bin/zsh). Use 'exit' to leave.
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Install Django

$ pipenv install django
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The output of this command

Installing django…
Looking in indexes: https://pypi.python.org/simple
Collecting django
 Using cached Django-3.0.3-py3-none-any.whl (7.5 MB)
Collecting asgiref~=3.2
 Using cached asgiref-3.2.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl (18 kB)
Collecting sqlparse>=0.2.2
 Using cached sqlparse-0.3.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (39 kB)
Collecting pytz
 Using cached pytz-2019.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl (509 kB)
Installing collected packages: asgiref, sqlparse, pytz, django
Successfully installed asgiref-3.2.3 django-3.0.3 pytz-2019.3 sqlparse-0.3.0

Adding django to Pipfile's [packages]…
Pipfile.lock not found, creating…
Locking [dev-packages] dependencies…
Locking [packages] dependencies…
Updated Pipfile.lock (7ff369)!
Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock (7ff369)…
 🐍   ▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉ 4/4 — 00:00:00
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Install postgresql driver

$ pipenv install psycopg2-binary
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The output

Installing psycopg2-binary…
Looking in indexes: https://pypi.python.org/simple
Collecting psycopg2-binary
 Using cached psycopg2_binary-2.8.4-cp37-cp37m-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (2.9 MB)
Installing collected packages: psycopg2-binary
Successfully installed psycopg2-binary-2.8.4

Adding psycopg2-binary to Pipfile's [packages]…
Pipfile.lock (7ff369) out of date, updating to (c90257)…
Locking [dev-packages] dependencies…
Locking [packages] dependencies…
Updated Pipfile.lock (c90257)!
Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock (c90257)…
 🐍   ▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉ 5/5 — 00:00:01
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Create a new Django project

The following command will create a new django project for us

$ django-admin startproject prodapplication
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Go to settings.py you will see a database configuration like this

# Database
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/ref/settings/#databases

DATABASES = {
   'default': {
       'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
       'NAME': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'db.sqlite3'),
   }
}
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SQlite is the default database for any Django project it help us to quickly prototyping a new idea.

Postgres Database & User Setup

Now logged into the postgresql shell

$ sudo -u postgres psql
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Create a database

CREATE DATABASE datbase_name;
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Create user

CREATE USER <username> WITH PASSWORD <password>;
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Set default encoding, transaction isolation scheme (Recommended from Django)

ALTER ROLE <username> SET client_encoding TO 'utf8';
ALTER ROLE <username> SET default_transaction_isolation TO 'read committed';
ALTER ROLE <username> SET timezone TO 'UTC';
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Give User access to database

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE <datbase_name> TO <username>;
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Quit out the shell

\q
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Manage dependencies

You can use Pipfile if you use pipenv or create a requirements.txt file and put your dependencies on it.

Ready to go

We've everything installed, now it’s time to do some production stuff.

Create a new file

I create a new file and called it local_settings.py, we will put all the production settings on this file.

Here is our folder structure

.
├── Pipfile
├── Pipfile.lock
└── prodapplication
   ├── manage.py
   └── prodapplication
       ├── asgi.py
       ├── __init__.py
       ├── local_settings.py
       ├── settings.py
       ├── urls.py
       └── wsgi.py
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Change Debug mode to False

DEBUG = False
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Change allowed host

ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['Your ip', 'www.domain.com', 'domain.com']
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Change The secret key

I use this tool to generate a Django secret key

SECRET_KEY = <your new secret key>
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Change the default database

DATABASES = {
   'default': {
       'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2',
       'HOST': 'localhost',
       'NAME': '<database_name>',
       'USER': '<username>',
       'PASSWORD': '<password>',
       'PORT': '5432',
   }
}
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Configure your mail server

# Email config
EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'
EMAIL_HOST = '<your smtp server>'
EMAIL_PORT = 587
EMAIL_HOST_USER = 'username'
EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD = 'password'
EMAIL_USE_TLS = True
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Import the new configuration

Put the following code in your settings.py

try:
   from .local_settings import *
except ImportError:
   pass
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Test your new application

Run the following command

$ python manage.py migrate
$ python manage.py runserver
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Conclusion

Performance is very important if it come to the real word application and you must optimise your application and configure it in a way that perform well.
One of the key is to use a production-ready Database, like postgresql.

In this guide you've learned how to write a production Django application.

Thanks for reading.

Discussion (2)

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onlinejudge95 profile image
onlinejudge95

Not what I would call a production-ready setting. You are using psycopg2-binary in production, rather you should build psycopg2 from source and avoid using any binaries to go in production.

psycopg.org/docs/install.html#bina...

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Ousseynou Diop Author

Thank you for your thought, this adds real value to the article.