What is Ruby programming language?
Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, general purpose, open source programming language that focuses on simplicity and productivity. Ruby has mixed features of Perl, small talk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp. Ruby was designed to create a new language that makes a balance with the functionality of Imperative languages.
What are rubygems?
rubygems is package manager software for ruby libraries (i.e. gems). The package manager has basic CRUD operations, dependency trees, and supports asynchronous communication between multiple gem servers.
What is a DSL and how does it pertain to Ruby?
A Domain Specific Language is an API that allows a developer to solve a problem or represent data more naturally than they might otherwise. The flexible nature of Ruby's syntax and the ability to alias and alter existing methods and classes makes it conducive to creating rich DSL's.
What is duck typing and how does it pertain to Ruby?
This is an object that may be acted upon even if it isn't the expected type as long as it looks and behaves like the expected object. This is a characteristic of Ruby because the lack of type checking of parameters makes this an effective programming technique.
What is the difference between an instance variable and a class variable?
A class variable is evaluated in reference to the class object created by the enclosing class definition while an instance variable is evaluated in reference to self. Instance variables cannot be referenced outside of instance methods.
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