## Introduction

Hello everyone, my name is Dustin. Today, I'd like to talk about my experience working with Assembly language in SPO class.

For this lab, we got to choose 2 out of 4 options that my professor gave to me which are Adding Calculator, Data Input Form, Hexdump, Screen Colour Selector. As I've worked with math lab before in the previous week, so I decided to go with the option of Adding Calculator, which seems like very interesting.

## Requirement

- Create a subroutine which enables the user to enter two numbers of up to two digits. Indicate where the cursor is, and allow the user to use the digit keys (0-9), backspace, and enter keys. Return the user's input value in the accumulator (A) register.
- Using this subroutine, write a program which add the two numbers (each of which is in the range 0-99) and print the result.

## Thought?

Although it looks quite easy and not a big deal at first time, but it took me way too much time. Compared to other languages I have learnt including C, C++, Java, Javascript, Assembler is way too difficult and it takes much more effort to get the same things done. Normally, for such a program, it would only take me round 5 minutes but this one took me a day.

For this lab, I used 6502 assembler to run my program.

Declare variables for screen input and output

```
define SCINIT $ff81 ; initialize/clear screen
define CHRIN $ffcf ; input character from keyboard
define CHROUT $ffd2 ; output character to screen
define SCREEN $ffed ; get screen size
define PLOT $fff0 ; get/set cursor coordinates
```

Key values

```
define RIGHT $81
define LEFT $83
define ENTER $0d
define BACKSPACE $08
```

Catch numbers entered by user

```
define NUM1 $15;
define NUM2 $16;
```

Clear screen

```
jsr SCINIT
```

Prompt to get input from user, and calculate

```
ldy #$00
jsr firstNumPrint ; ask for input for first number
jsr getNum; get the first number
jsr storeFirstNum ; then store the first number
ldy #$00
jsr secondNumPrint ; ask for input for second number
jsr getNum; get the second number
jsr storeSecondNum ; store the second number
ldy #$00
jsr resultPrintString ; print a string 'Result'
jsr printResult ; print the result
jmp mainLoop ; go back to the first step
getNum:
sec
jsr PLOT
ldx #$15
clc
jsr PLOT
getNumLoop:
sec
jsr PLOT
jsr CHRIN
charCheck:
cmp #BACKSPACE ; if user enter backspace, it erase the #$15 digit
beq move_back
cmp #RIGHT ; if user enter right arrow, it goes to the first digit
beq move_right
cmp #LEFT ; if user enter left arrow, it goes to the second digit
beq move_left
cmp #ENTER ; if user enter enter, it goes to the next process
beq move
```

Check to see if user enters a number from 0 to 9

```
cmp #$30
bcc getNumLoop
clc
cmp #$3a
bcs getNumLoop
jsr CHROUT
sec
jsr PLOT
cpx #$17
bne getNumLoop
dex
clc
jsr PLOT
jmp getNumLoop
```

Move

```
move_back:
cpx #$15
beq getNumLoop
jsr CHROUT
jmp getNumLoop
move_left:
cpx #$15 ; first digit
beq getNumLoop
jsr CHROUT
jmp getNumLoop
move_right:
cpx #$16 ; second digit
beq getNumLoop
jsr CHROUT
jmp getNumLoop
move:
sec
jsr PLOT
ldx #$15 ; first degit
clc
jsr PLOT
sec
jsr PLOT
clc
sbc #$2F ; to calculate it, it should be subtracted by #$2f
asl
asl
asl
asl
pha
ldx #$16
clc
jsr PLOT
sec
jsr PLOT
clc
sbc #$2F ; to calculate it, it should be subtracted by #$2f
pha
ldx #$00
iny
clc
jsr PLOT
sec
jsr PLOT
pla
tax
pla
rts
```

Store num

```
storeFirstNum:
sta NUM1
txa
eor NUM1
sta NUM1
rts
storeSecondNum:
sta NUM2
txa
eor NUM2
sta NUM2
rts
```

Print

```
printResult:
sec
jsr PLOT
ldx #$15
clc
jsr PLOT
sec
jsr PLOT
sed
lda NUM1
adc NUM2
cld
pha
bcc outputAddition
ldx #$14
clc
jsr PLOT
sec
jsr PLOT
lda #$31
jsr CHROUT
```

Calculate two nums

```
outputAddition:
lsr
lsr
lsr
lsr
clc
adc #$30 ; as the received number does not fit for ASCII, it needs to add #$30
jsr CHROUT
pla
and #$0F
clc
adc #$30 ; as the received number does not fit for ASCII, it needs to add #$30
jsr CHROUT
sec
jsr PLOT
ldx #$00
iny
clc
jsr PLOT
rts
```

Prompt to get numbers in format "00"

```
lda firstNum,y
beq goback_main
jsr CHROUT
iny
bne firstNumPrint
secondNumPrint:
lda secondNum,y
beq goback_main
jsr CHROUT
iny
bne secondNumPrint
```

Print the result

```
resultPrintString:
lda result,y
beq goback_main
jsr CHROUT
iny
bne resultPrintString
```

go back to main loop

```
goback_main:
rts
```

```
firstNum:
dcb "E","N","T","E","R",32,"F","I","R","S","T",32,"N","U","M","B","E","R",":",32,32,"0","0"
dcb 00
secondNum:
dcb "E","N","T","E","R",32,"S","E","C","O","N","D",32,"N","U","M","B","E","R",":",32,"0","0"
dcb 00
result:
dcb "R","E","S","U","L","T",":"
dcb 00
```

## Discussion (0)