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Making PONGPONG - Game Development using Pyglet - Part 1

Siddharth Chandra
Namaste πŸ™πŸΌ I am Software Engineer at Bank of America, hooked on Python 🐍 I like to read OSFY, Fiction and Manga 😺
・8 min read

In this 3 part series, we will be making a game, using python game programming library pyglet.


What is Pyglet ?

pyglet is a cross-platform windowing and multimedia library for Python, intended for developing games and other visually rich applications. Pyglet runs under Python 3.5+. Being written in pure Python, it also works on other Python interpreters such as PyPy, while supporting development and production on Windows, MacOS and Linux operating systems.

What is PongPong ?

PongPong, is a name I thought of from PingPong, with some tweak to it, that it would not involve any Artificial Intelligence or Machine Learning and not any complex Data Structures, but simple Python classes, to create our game.

Generally speaking, PongPong is a simple yet amazing game to play around with ! A game that every developer should try to make to learn several concepts behind game development.


PongPong Design

PongPong will have single player functionality with others being solid walls. If you know traditional PingPong, it has 2 walls and 2 players (both being human or one could be computer), players either can use keyboard's arrow keys or mouse movement to dictate movements of paddle.

Paddle can not move further behind the walls on both sides and also it could not move up and down, its movement is restricted to left and right.

Adopting the same functionality of Paddle from traditional PingPong, PongPong will have same function of paddle's movements with a restriction that it could only move using arrow keys.

Then, there is a Ball that we need to defend from going inside our territory or simply saying from going behind the paddle.

Ball will reflect and move in opposite direction once touched with walls or paddle.

Ball's speed will be random, but we will try to keep it in a range so that it does not exceed our player's movement while defending its territory.

PingPong has 2 walls and 1 another player to play against, but PongPong will have 3 walls and single player functionality (to keep it simple and AI free !).

A sample of the final output of PongPong.

sample_pongpong.png

Here the area marked in green are the walls, blue marked is ball (coloured orange) and paddle is marked red.

Each component's design will be discussed later in their respective section while diving into code simultaneously.

The directory structure will follow the below pattern:

+---PongPong
    pongpong.py
    +---pong
        __init__.py
        ball.py
        load.py
        paddle.py
        rectangle.py
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pongpong.py is our main file which will be used to trigger the game, all other files in folder pong contains classes for different components and have some utility functions (all are simple, I assure you).

So we have our initial design on how it will look on the outside and what all components we need to create, to sum it up we have:

  1. 1 Paddle - A Rectangle
  2. 1 Ball - A Circle
  3. 3 Walls surrounding the boundaries for the Ball and Paddle - Rectangle Wall
  4. Also, remember we need to view the final window as x-y coordinate plane, where bottom-left of the window is at (0, 0).

So, without any further ado, let's dive into programming the PongPong !


Main PongPong

Let's create our main file first (but only limited things that we need to get started). Name it pongpong.py, don't forget the project structure (ponpong.py file is in PongPong project directory).

# ./PongPong/pongpong.py

# Variables, Considering a vertical oriented window for game
WIDTH = 600   # Game Window Width
HEIGHT = 600  # Game Window Height
BORDER = 10   # Walls Thickness/Border Thickness
RADIUS = 12   # Ball Radius
PWIDTH = 120  # Paddle Width
PHEIGHT = 15  # Paddle Height
ballspeed = (-2, -2)    # Initially ball will be falling with speed (x, y)
paddleacc = (-5, 5)   # Paddle Acceleration on both sides - left: negative acc, right: positive acc, for x-axis

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All variables are almost self explanatory.

ballspeed defines with which speed it would be moving, negative values means that it is moving in downward direction.

paddleacc defines the left-right movement direction acceleration whenever we click left-right arrow keys on keyboard. Consider it as the number of points it will move whenever we click arrow keys.

More things will be there in pongpong.py file, but for now just keep it as it is.

Walls

Let's first create walls surrounding the paddle and ball, that is, our game boundaries.

Wall is essentially a rectangle drawn vertically (2 rectangles, 1 on left and 1 on right) and horizontally (1 on top of game window).

Walls will look something like this when completed after drawing on main window.

walls.png

For this, create a RectangleObject class in a python file, name it rectangle.py. The code would look something like this (don't forget to create this file in pong folder, see above for project tree):

# ./PongPong/pong/rectangle.py

import pyglet

class RectangleObject(pyglet.shapes.Rectangle):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(RectangleObject, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

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RectangleObject inherits pyglet's Rectangle shape class. Even though we are just initializing base class again in it's __init__ method, it is somewhat good practice to create separate class (maybe just in case in future we may add more methods to it), but for this tutorial we are definitely not going to add any more method in it (remember what I said, it's going to be simple).

So what pyglet.shapes.Rectangle does ? It is a predefined class in pyglet library, present in shapes module, that provides us the power to create a Rectangle on some window. It has its own set of parameters, but to keep tutorial easy to follow, we will see those in next part of this tutorial on how to draw a rectangle that just fits our needs.

So we have our walls class ready named RectangleObject, inside rectangle.py file, inside pong folder, inside PongPong project directory. So far, so good !

Let's create our Paddle now !

Paddle

Paddle is again a Rectangle, with additional ability to move around left-right using keyboard arrow keys.

So, let's see the code first, name the file as paddle.py:

# ./PongPong/pong/paddle.py

import pyglet
from pyglet.window import key
from typing import Tuple


class Paddle(pyglet.shapes.Rectangle):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(Paddle, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

        self.acc_left, self.acc_right = 0.0, 0.0
        self.rightx = 0
        self.key_handler = key.KeyStateHandler()
        self.event_handlers = [self, self.key_handler]

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Hmm, seems complex ? Naahh, it's simple ! Let me explain:

  • We import 3 things, pyglet, key from pyglet.window and Tuple from typing.

  • pyglet as you know is our game library that we need to get things to work (or to play), Tuple is used for type hinting, to let other developers know what type of data is being passed in methods, more on type hinting here.

  • pyglet.window is a collection of several classes that are used for window handling, either clicking on window or doing some keyboard operation on window and many more such awesome things. What we need is keyboard functionality, hence importing key class.

  • Create Paddle class that inherits pyglet.shapes.Rectangle, again it will be of type Rectangle having all its capabilities.

  • To initialise Rectangle class, we just initialise that in __init__ method of Paddle class.

  • After that we define acceleration of the ball with which it will move whenever we do keyboard action. Initially the values of self.acc_left and self.acc_right will be zero, as the paddle is in rest mode, not moving in any direction. Consider acceleration as the number of points it will move in either direction. For example, if self.acc_right = 2, then that means paddle will move 2 points in right direction.

  • self.key_handler will contain all the state handling of keyboard, assigned to key.KeyStateHandler(), it will return a dictionary that contains state of keyboard keys.

  • self.event_handlers as the name suggest, will contain the elements in a list that needs event actions, that is, those elements that will have some events to deal with, here in our case paddle needs to be moved hence an event described using self (the Paddle class itself) in self.event_handlers and that move event will happen when a keyboard click event occurs hence an event described using self.key_handler. Both of these events will occur in a game window (that we will create later), hence needs to be pushed to a game window later, while launching the app.

So anything left ? Yeah self.rightx, what the hell is it ?

  • In pyglet whenever an object is drawn on window, like rectangle, it's origin point will be bottom-left, that is the initial self.x (coordinate on x-axis) will be zero or whatever we set during initialisation, but remember it will represent bottom-left. So we need bottom-right x-coordinate as well (to avoid collision with the walls on right side !), no need to worry about y-coordinate, as paddle can only move left-right (represented on x-axis in our case) and not top-bottom (represented as y-axis in our case).

Paddle will look something like this in final window:

paddle.png

More on paddle in next part !

Let's create the PongPong ball.

Ball

Ball will be a type of circle, with some speed to move around and a colour of our choice.

Let's dive into the code then:

# ./PongPong/pong/ball.py

import pyglet
import random
from typing import Tuple


class BallObject(pyglet.shapes.Circle):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(BallObject, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.color = (255, 180, 0)
        self.velocity_x, self.velocity_y = 0.0, 0.0

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Not going to explain what pyglet.shapes.Circle does (it is same as Rectangle class discussed earlier while creating walls)

  • We import 3 things, pyglet, key from pyglet.window and Tuple from typing.

  • pyglet you know is our game library that we need to get things to work (or to play), Tuple is used for type hinting, to let other developers know what type of data is being passed in methods, more on type hinting here.

  • Create BallObject class that inherits pyglet.shapes.Circle, again it will be of type Circle having all its capabilities.

  • To initialise Circle class, we just initialise that in __init__ method of BallObject class.

  • We use color attribute that was inherited from pyglet.shapes.Circle to set its colour to RGB (255, 180, 0).

  • At last we define velocity_x and velocity_y to determine the speed of ball (on a coordinate plane, that's why we need velocity in x and y direction). While initialising the ball it would be at rest, but in main window when we load all objects, during that time we will change its velocity to some value (defined in pongpong.py file, see here), but before loading it should be at rest !

It would look something like this:

ball.png

Well that's it, we have the ball in the field now !


What We Know ?

  1. We know what PongPong is and what pyglet is.
  2. We know the design of PongPong on how it will look after completing the code.
  3. We created main PongPong file that will run the game and define constants for the walls, the paddle and the ball.
  4. We created a class for walls.
  5. We created a class for paddle, with some very interesting and much needed variables.
  6. At last we created the ball class that has some color and velocity with which it will be moving.

Well, so far so good !

If you followed this step-by-step and have some doubts, I would be very happy to get them sorted (maybe I will learn something new 😁). Make sure to drop them in the comments !

In next part we will see how to launch our game window and how to load these objects in the window.


Just starting your Open Source Journey ? Don't forget to check out Hello Open Source

Want to ++ your GitHub Profile README ? Check out Quote - README

Till next time !

Namaste πŸ™

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