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Shared HTML Layouts With Pugjs

nkratzmeyer profile image Nathan Kratzmeyer ・3 min read

This post is the second in a short series on using the PugJS templating engine with nodejs and expressjs. In the first part, I went over the basics of using Pugjs to render HTML pages. In this post, I will demonstrate how to use Pug to create and render shared layout templates. Let's get started!

Starting Code

Below is the code as it was at the end of the last post.

//   index.js
const express = require('express');

const app = express();

app.set('view engine', 'pug');

app.get('/', (req, res)=>{
    res.render('index');
});

app.listen(3000, ()=>{
    console.log('Server listening on 3000');
});
//- Index.pug
<!DOCTYPE html>
html(lang="en")
    head
        title Home Page
    body
        header
            h1 Hello from Pug Template!
        main
            p This is a paragraph

And here is our folder layout

project_folder
>node_modules
--Lots of stuff
>views
--index.pug
-index.js
-package-lock.json
-package.json

Adding a Layout

Under the views directory, create a new sub-directory called layouts. Under this directory, create a new file called main-layout.pug with the following content.

<!DOCTYPE html>
html(lang="en")
    head
        title Home Page
    body
        header
            nav
                ul
                    li 
                        a(href="/") Home
                    li
                        a(href="/about") About
            h1 This h1 is from the layout.
            hr
        block content

So this is just a regular pug template with the exception of the block element on the last line. This denotes a block of content that will be provided by any other Pug template that uses this layout. The word "content" next to the block identifier is just a name and can be anything. So block content just creates a named placeholder for content that will be injected by other Pug pages. Later we'll see how to create multiple such placeholder blocks. Now lets modify our index.pug file to make use of our layout. Open index.pug and change its content to:

extends layouts/main-layout.pug

block content
    p This content is from index.pug!

The first line tells the Pug engine to use the main-layout.pug file that we just created. The second line says "insert the following content into the block named content of the main-layout file before rendering it". So you should be able to start up nodemon and view the page at http://localhost:3000.

Adding the About Page

In our main-layout file, we created a link to /about but we haven't yet created this page or this route handler on our server. Let's do this now. Open index.js and add the following route handler underneath our "/" handler.

app.get('/about', (req, res)=>{
    res.render('about');
});

Under our views folder, let's create an about.pug file with the following content.

extends layouts/main-layout.pug

block content
    p This content is from about.pug!
    p About my cool site!

Now we have two pages that use the main-layout file and each page has different content. If you go back to the site, your nav links should now be working.

Multiple Named Blocks

Now let's look at how we can create multiple placeholder blocks in our layout page. Open main-layout.pug and put the enter the following code under our existing code.

section
    h2 This h2 is also from the layout
block more_content

Be sure that the section tag is indented to the same level as the block content line. Modify index.pug to make use of the new placeholder. Add the following under our existing code in index.pug.

block more_content
    p More content from index.pug!!

Now if you check out the site at the home route, you should see that different pieces of the page are provided by different files. Notice that we didn't provide anything for the more-content block in our about.pug file. If you navigate to the about page, you'll see that this is no issue.

Conclusion

In this post I've gone over using Pugjs to render shared HTML layouts. We've seen how to denote placeholder blocks in our layouts so that content can be injected from other pages that use the layout. In the next (and probably last) post of this series, I'll go over how to inject dynamic data into our Pug templates from the server.
Hope this was helpful and corrections/comments/critiques are welcome!

Discussion (4)

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misterhtmlcss profile image
Roger K.

Hi @nkratzmeyer
This is a great article. There just isn't that much of a cohesive community out there and so I find it a challenge to become better with Pug and so I'm very grateful for the time you've invested here.

My question is this:

I'm trying to build a layout.pug file that displays a 3 blocks from 3 files nav.pug, main.pug, footer.pug and for some reason it's only reading block content

Here is a link: repl.it/repls/CelebratedImpoliteBl...

I'm genuinely curious how I can get the Header.pug and Footer.pug into the layout file. Am I thinking the wrong thing altogether? Or am I close, but just not getting it?

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nkratzmeyer profile image
Nathan Kratzmeyer Author

This is a great question and you're almost there! You're wanting to do something I didn't cover in this series which is to do an "include". To start, you'll modify your main-layout. Let's do the header. To include the header in your main-layout, change:

block header

to

include ../header.pug

Then change your header.pug file to just be the content you want to show like this:

h1 testing header

Then just do the same for your other content. Then you might want to restructure your folders to have a subfolder called "partials" or "includes" where you would put your header and footer. The stuff that's directly in the views folder should probably be your "main pages". Like your "About", "Contact", etc. pages. Make sense? Thank you very much for the question! I'll definitely write a new post covering this in more detail in the next couple of days.

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misterhtmlcss profile image
Roger K. • Edited

Thank you so so much for your detailed reply and I definitely look forward to reading any further articles on Pug as well.

Thread Thread
nkratzmeyer profile image
Nathan Kratzmeyer Author

I just added another post on using the includes functionality. Hopefully you find it helpful! Thanks so much for reading and asking questions.

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