Originally Posted on www.a11ywithlindsey.com
Hey friends! Hope you’ve had a great week! This tweet I wrote a while back inspired me to write this blog post:
One of the responses was “this would be a good blog post.” So here I am.
In this post I’m going to go over:
- Background on my first project as the sole front end developer
- Learning about progressive enhancement
- How I would improve things now
About 3-4 years ago, while I’d been in tech for a couple of years, I finally knew that I wanted to be a front end developer. I talked to my boss about owning the front end development on a project. My boss loved finding fitting projects for developer strengths and their desired growth. The project she assigned to me wasn’t particularly sexy. However, it was perfect for my learning. It was not a redesign.
Different, right? You rarely hear about build projects that aren’t redesign. The job: migrate their content to WordPress. The client disliked their previous CMS’s user experience but wanted to keep their design the same. This project allowed me to improve their CSS, accessibility, and performance.
The other main requirement was that I was not allowed to alter the content markup in any way. We’ll talk more about this in another post, but this ended up being a bit of a blessing for progressive enhancement!
This website had many language sites, over 20. This menu’s purpose was to switch the language. We kept the existing functionality, which was a menu of links to each languages' homepage. Ideally, I would want to have the language switcher to get the page the user was on. However, remember, we were not changing any of the functionality; it was a migration project.
addEventListener to toggle a
visually-hidden class. To read more about visually hidden, check out the A11y Project's post about it.
Simple enough, right?
When we do it this way, we can focus on links that are not visible. Take a look at this gif, and particularly the bottom left corner where you see the links. Do you notice when we focus on the button, we see a blue outline? When we start tabbing again, all the links we hid are focusable. We cannot see where it the focus of the link is
What I did in the past was way more overkill than I needed. I set all the tabindexes of the links inside that menu to be
Ah much better, at least functionally.
When I first started, I thought that
display: none was always bad for accessibility. But it's not. If something isn't open, nobody should be able to access it, not even screen reader users. So I'm going to change it up a bit.
- remove the
display: noneand when I append the
.openclass, change styling to
- Change the toggle classList to toggle the class
Doing the above steps won't solve the problem entirely, though. Let's talk about progressive enhancements.
ul element has
display: none, nobody can ever see the language menu. That's because there's no way to toggle the menu open without the event listeners.
There are a few things I would do for progressive enhancement.
- Add a
- Create some default styling with
no-js, so it doesn't look unsightly (I'm not going to do that here)
- Hide the button visually and from assistive technology, if
If you've read my Demystifying ARIA blog post you know that I add ARIA only at the end when I need more context. I didn't know anything about ARIA when I first started working as a web developer, so I never added that to the code.
Here are the ARIA attributes that I am going to add:
aria-expandedto indicate to a user whether the menu is open or closed. The value toggles between true and false on the event listener.
aria-haspopupto indicate that the element has a popup context menu or sub-level menu.
To test on macOS:
- open up Safari and turn on a screen reader using cmd + F5.
- Use VoiceOver Commands to select the button. It should read “Open, Collapsed, Popup button.”
- Press enter. The screen reader should read “Open, Expanded, Popup Button.”
See the video below go to the original post.
These aria attributes give direction to a screen reader user about how to interact with the button. It would be even better if I had a more verbose button label with more context telling you what you're opening up, too!
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Cheers! Have a great week!