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Elizabeth Mattijsen
Elizabeth Mattijsen

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Don't fear the grepper!

This blog post provides an introduction to the Raku Programming Language and its grep functionality. It does not require any specific knowledge about the Raku Programming Language, although being familiar with basic grep functionality (of the unix utility), is recommended!

The grep functionality comes in two flavours in Raku: a procedural (sub) version, and an object oriented (method) version. Since everything in Raku is an object (or can be thought of as one), and I personally mostly prefer the object oriented way, I will be discussing only the method way of using grep and friends.

A simple example

Let's start with a simple question: Show the even numbers between 1 and 10. That should be easy enough.

We create an array with the numbers 1 through 10. And we put the even numbers in another array, which we can do this with the grep method. The grep method takes a piece of code as the argument: this will then be repeatedly called with a value to determine whether or not that value should be included.

sub is-even($number) {    # returns True if given number is even
    return $number %% 2;  # %% is the "evenly divisible" operator
my @whole = 1..10;                 # fill up the array
my @even = @whole.grep(&is-even);  # fill array with even numbers
say @even;  # [2 4 6 8 10];        # show the result
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Let's dissect this piece of code: the first 3 lines contain the definition of a subroutine called "is-even". It expects a single argument $number, and returns either False or True depending on whether the given value is even or not.

The fourth line defines (my) and initializes (=) an array called @whole with the numbers 1 through 10.

The fifth line defines (my) and initializes (=) an array called @even with the result of calling the method grep (with the subroutine even as the argument) on the @whole array.

The sixth line shows the contents of the @even array.

So what should we learn about Raku from this example?

  • subroutines are made with sub
  • variables with a single value have a $ prefix (usually referred to as a sigil)
  • values are returned with return from a subroutine
  • arrays have a @ prefix (sigil)
  • calling a method is done by placing a period . between object and method name
  • a subroutine can be referred to by prefixing its name with & (sigil)

First simplification

However, that seems like a lot of code to obtain the simple answer to the question: "Show the even numbers between 1 and 10 inclusive". So let's start by simplifying this code:

sub is-even($number) { $number %% 2 }  # return not needed
say (1..10).grep(&is-even);            # also works on ranges
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Note that we removed the return from the subroutine declaration. By default, the last expression evaluated in any block of code (recognizable by the curly braces { }) will be returned automatically.

Also note that we removed the use of arrays altogether: (1..10) in Raku is a Range object that can also have the grep method called on it.

And the say subroutine will take any expression as its argument, so we're good here as well.

Second simplification

However, we can even further simplify this code. The subroutine "is-even" doesn't actually need a name, it just needs to be a piece of code. A further simplification would thus be:

-> $number { $number %% 2 }
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In Raku this is referred to as a "pointy block". You could think of this as subroutine without name, but there's a subtle difference with a sub: you can return from a subroutine, but you can not return from just a pointy block. If you execute a return in a pointy block, it will return out of the first outer subroutine.

Third simplification

In programming one often talks about DRY as in Don't Repeat Yourself. Note that in the second simplification, we removed the repeated mentions of @whole and @even. In this third simplification, we will remove the repeated mention of $number:

{ $^number %% 2 }
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This uses the placeholder variable feature of Raku. It is basically a shorthand for the code of the second simplification.

But why would we need to have a name for a variable in such a simple expression anyway? Couldn't we do that in an even shorter way? Well, in Raku you can, thanks to something called "whatever currying":

* %% 2
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What? That's it? Yup. Expressive, isn't it? So the actual code to show the even numbers between 1 and 10 inclusive, becomes:

say (1..10).grep(* %% 2); # (2 4 6 8 10)
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Moving the goal

Now suppose you're only interested in the first even number? Well, you're in luck: the Raku Programming Language comes with a first method, which is essentially the same as grep, but which stops as soon as it has the first match. So our code would become:

say (1..10).first(* %% 2);  # 2
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But what if we want to have the third even number?

Remember how we used arrays in our first version? Well, even though (1..10).grep(* %% 2) is not an array, it can be considered one. Which means you can apply indexing on it!

say (1..10).grep(* %% 2)[2];  # 6
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The [2] syntax indicates indexing, and since the first element starts at index 0, [2] means the third element.

Some people, coming from other languages, might argue that this would be wasteful, checking all the values in the range to only use the third value. And they'd be right in (most) other languages. But in the Raku Programming Language, grep is a lazy method, so it will only check as many values as it needs to produce the third element.


This concludes the first part of the introduction to the grep method, and possibly to the Raku Programming Language. Questions and comments are always welcome. You can also drop into the #raku-beginner channel on, or on Discord if you'd like to have more immediate feedback.

I hope you liked it! Thank you for reading all the way to the end.

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