This chapter will discuss the `tuple`

data type and some of the common sequence operations. Data types like `str`

, `range`

, `list`

and `tuple`

fall under **Sequence** types. Binary Sequence Types aren't discussed in this book. Some of the operations behave differently or do not apply for certain types, see docs.python: Common Sequence Operations for details.

See also docs.python: collections for specialized container data types.

## Sequences and iterables

Quoting from docs.python glossary: **sequence**:

An iterable which supports efficient element access using integer indices via the

`__getitem__()`

special method and defines a`__len__()`

method that returns the length of the sequence. Some built-in sequence types are list, str, tuple, and bytes. Note that dict also supports`__getitem__()`

and`__len__()`

, but is considered a mapping rather than a sequence because the lookups use arbitrary immutable keys rather than integers.

Quoting from docs.python glossary: **iterable**:

An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list, str, and tuple) and some non-sequence types like dict, file objects...

## Initialization

Tuples are declared as a collection of zero or more objects, separated by a comma within `()`

parentheses characters. Each element can be specified as a value by itself or as an expression. The outer parentheses are optional if comma separation is present. Here's some examples:

```
# can also use: empty_tuple = tuple()
>>> empty_tuple = ()
>>> type(empty_tuple)
<class 'tuple'>
# note the trailing comma, otherwise it will result in a 'str' data type
# same as 'apple', since parentheses are optional here
>>> one_element = ('apple',)
# multiple elements example
>>> dishes = ('Aloo tikki', 'Baati', 'Khichdi', 'Makki roti', 'Poha')
# mixed data type example, uses expressions as well
>>> mixed = (1+2, 'two', (-3, -4), empty_tuple)
>>> mixed
(3, 'two', (-3, -4), ())
```

You can use the `tuple()`

built-in function to convert from an iterable data type to `tuple`

. Here's some examples:

```
>>> chars = tuple('hello')
>>> chars
('h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o')
>>> tuple(range(3, 10, 3))
(3, 6, 9)
```

Tuples are immutable, but individual elements can be either mutable or immutable. As an exercise, given

`chars = tuple('hello')`

, see what's the output of the expression`chars[0]`

and the statement`chars[0] = 'H'`

.

## Slicing

One or more elements can be retrieved from a sequence using the slicing notation (this wouldn't work for an iterable like `dict`

or `set`

). It works similarly to the `start/stop/step`

logic seen with the `range()`

function. The default `step`

is `1`

. Default value for `start`

and `stop`

depends on whether the `step`

is positive or negative.

```
>>> primes = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
# index starts with 0
>>> primes[0]
2
# start=2 and stop=4, default step=1
# note that the element at index 4 (stop value) isn't part of the output
>>> primes[2:4]
(5, 7)
# default start=0
>>> primes[:3]
(2, 3, 5)
# default stop=len(seq)
>>> primes[3:]
(7, 11)
# copy of the sequence, same as primes[::1]
>>> primes[:]
(2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
```

You can use negative index to get elements from the end of the sequence. `seq[-n]`

is equivalent to `seq[len(seq) - n]`

.

```
>>> primes = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
# len(primes) - 1 = 4, so this is same as primes[4]
>>> primes[-1]
11
# seq[-n:] will give the last n elements
>>> primes[-1:]
(11,)
>>> primes[-2:]
(7, 11)
```

Here's some examples with different `step`

values.

```
>>> primes = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11)
# same as primes[0:5:2]
>>> primes[::2]
(2, 5, 11)
# retrieve elements in reverse direction
# note that the element at index 1 (stop value) isn't part of the output
>>> primes[3:1:-1]
(7, 5)
# reversed sequence
# would help you with the palindrome exercise from Control structures chapter
>>> primes[::-1]
(11, 7, 5, 3, 2)
```

As an exercise, given `primes = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11)`

,

- what happens if you use
`primes[5]`

or`primes[-6]`

? - what happens if you use
`primes[:5]`

or`primes[-6:]`

? - is it possible to get the same output as
`primes[::-1]`

by using an explicit number for`stop`

value? If not, why not?

## Sequence unpacking

You can map the individual elements of an iterable to multiple variables. This is known as **sequence unpacking** and it is handy in many situations.

```
>>> details = ('2018-10-25', 'car', 2346)
>>> purchase_date, vehicle, qty = details
>>> purchase_date
'2018-10-25'
>>> vehicle
'car'
>>> qty
2346
```

Here's how you can easily swap variable values.

```
>>> num1 = 3.14
>>> num2 = 42
>>> num3 = -100
# RHS is a single tuple data type (recall that parentheses are optional)
>>> num1, num2, num3 = num3, num1, num2
>>> print(f'{num1 = }; {num2 = }; {num3 = }')
num1 = -100; num2 = 3.14; num3 = 42
```

Unpacking isn't limited to single value assignments. You can use a `*`

prefix to assign all the remaining values, if any is left, to a `list`

variable.

```
>>> values = ('first', 6.2, -3, 500, 'last')
>>> x, *y = values
>>> x
'first'
>>> y
[6.2, -3, 500, 'last']
>>> a, *b, c = values
>>> a
'first'
>>> b
[6.2, -3, 500]
>>> c
'last'
```

As an exercise, what do you think will happen for these cases, given `nums = (1, 2)`

:

`a, b, c = nums`

`a, *b, c = nums`

`*a, *b = nums`

## Returning multiple values

Tuples are also the preferred way to return multiple values from a function. Here's some examples:

```
>>> def min_max(iter):
... return min(iter), max(iter)
...
>>> min_max('visualization')
('a', 'z')
>>> small, big = min_max((-3, 10, -42, 53.2))
>>> small
-42
>>> big
53.2
```

The `min_max(iter)`

user-defined function above returns both the **minimum** and **maximum** values of a given iterable input. `min()`

and `max()`

are built-in functions. You can either save the output as a `tuple`

or unpack into multiple variables. You'll see built-in functions that return `tuple`

as output later in this chapter.

The use of both min() and max() in the above example is for illustration purpose only. As an exercise, write a custom logic that iterates only once over the input sequence and calculates both minimum/maximum simultaneously.

## Iteration

You have already seen examples with `for`

loop that iterates over a sequence data type. Here's a refresher:

```
>>> nums = (3, 6, 9)
>>> for n in nums:
... print(f'square of {n} is {n ** 2}')
...
square of 3 is 9
square of 6 is 36
square of 9 is 81
```

In the above example, you get one element per each iteration. If you need the **index** of the elements as well, you can use the `enumerate()`

built-in function. You'll get a `tuple`

value per each iteration, containing index (starting with `0`

by default) and the value at that index. Here's some examples:

```
>>> nums = (42, 3.14, -2)
>>> for t in enumerate(nums):
... print(t)
...
(0, 42)
(1, 3.14)
(2, -2)
>>> for idx, val in enumerate(nums):
... print(f'{idx}: {val:>5}')
...
0: 42
1: 3.14
2: -2
```

The

`enumerate()`

built-in function has a`start=0`

default valued argument. As an exercise, change the above snippet to start the index from`1`

instead of`0`

.

## Arbitrary number of arguments

As seen before, the `print()`

function can accept zero or more values separated by a comma. Here's a portion of the documentation as a refresher:

```
print(value, ..., sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)
```

You can write your own functions to accept arbitrary number of arguments as well. The syntax is similar to the sequence unpacking examples seen earlier in the chapter. A `*`

prefix to an argument name will allow it to accept zero or more values. Such an argument will be packed as a `tuple`

data type and it should always be specified after positional arguments (if any). Idiomatically, `args`

is used as the `tuple`

variable name. Here's an example:

```
>>> def many(a, *args):
... print(f'{a = }; {args = }')
...
>>> many()
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: many() missing 1 required positional argument: 'a'
>>> many(1)
a = 1; args = ()
>>> many(1, 'two', 3)
a = 1; args = ('two', 3)
```

Here's a more practical example:

```
>>> def sum_nums(*args):
... total = 0
... for n in args:
... total += n
... return total
...
>>> sum_nums()
0
>>> sum_nums(3, -8)
-5
>>> sum_nums(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
15
```

As an exercise,

- add a default valued argument
`initial`

which should be used to initialize`total`

instead of`0`

in the above`sum_nums()`

function. For example,`sum_nums(3, -8)`

should give`-5`

and`sum_nums(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, initial=5)`

should give`20`

. - what would happen if you call the above function like
`sum_nums(initial=5, 2)`

? - what would happen if you have
`nums = (1, 2)`

and call the above function like`sum_nums(*nums, total=3)`

? - in what ways does this function differ from the
`sum()`

built-in function?

See also docs.python: Arbitrary Argument Lists.

Section Arbitrary keyword arguments will discuss how to define functions that accept arbitrary number of keyword arguments.

## zip

Use zip() to iterate over two or more iterables simultaneously. Every iteration, you'll get a `tuple`

with an item from each of the iterables. Iteration will stop when any of the input iterables is exhausted, use itertools.zip_longest() if you want to go on until the longest iterable is exhausted.

Here's an example:

```
>>> odd = (1, 3, 5)
>>> even = (2, 4, 6)
>>> for i, j in zip(odd, even):
... print(i + j)
...
3
7
11
```

As an exercise, write a function that returns the sum of product of corresponding elements of two sequences (for example, the result should be `44`

for `(1, 3, 5)`

and `(2, 4, 6)`

).

## Tuple methods

While this book won't discuss Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in any detail, you'll still see plenty examples for *using* them. You've already seen a few examples with modules. See Practical Python Programming and Fluent Python if you want to learn about Python OOP in depth. See also docs.python: Data model.

Data types in Python are all internally implemented as **classes**. You can use the dir() built-in function to get a list of valid attributes for an object.

```
# you can also use tuple objects such as 'odd' and 'even' declared earlier
>>> dir(tuple)
['__add__', '__class__', '__class_getitem__', '__contains__', '__delattr__',
'__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__',
'__getitem__', '__getnewargs__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__',
'__init_subclass__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mul__',
'__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__rmul__',
'__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'count', 'index']
>>> even = (2, 4, 6)
# same as: len(even)
>>> even.__len__()
3
```

The non-dunder names (last two items) in the above listing will be discussed in this section. But first, a refresher on the `in`

membership operator is shown below.

```
>>> num = 5
>>> num in (10, 21, 33)
False
>>> num = 21
>>> num in (10, 21, 33)
True
```

The `count()`

method returns the number of times a value is present in the `tuple`

object.

```
>>> nums = (1, 4, 6, 22, 3, 5, 2, 1, 51, 3, 1)
>>> nums.count(3)
2
>>> nums.count(31)
0
```

The `index()`

method will give the index of the first occurrence of a value. It will raise `ValueError`

if the value isn't present, which you can avoid by using the `in`

operator first. Or, you can use the `try-except`

statement to handle the exception as needed.

```
>>> nums = (1, 4, 6, 22, 3, 5, 2, 1, 51, 3, 1)
>>> nums.index(3)
4
>>> n = 31
>>> nums.index(n)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ValueError: tuple.index(x): x not in tuple
>>> if n in nums:
... print(nums.index(n))
... else:
... print(f'{n} not present in "nums" tuple')
...
31 not present in "nums" tuple
```

The

`list`

and`str`

sequence types have many more methods and they will be discussed separately in later chapters.

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