What is Artificial Intelligence(AI) ?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry.
AI is the future. It is shaping many industries even when it’s new compared to other technologies. AI is also growing as scientists and engineers are doing research at a rapid pace. Companies such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and others are also investing heavily in AI research, and the results are quite evident. The release of self-driving cars is just an example of rapid AI growth.
History and Evolution of Artificial Intelligence
The idea of Artificial Intelligence is believed to be born back in 1940s and 1950s when some scientists came up with the idea of creating artificial brain. Since then, there is no turning back.
- Turing test is a very famous and the very first one performed by a British computer scientist Alan Turing. In this test, Turing tried to replace a machine with a human in a conversation over a teleprinter and checked whether a computer can replace human with a significant level of intelligence.
- He published his research in the famous landmark paper "Computing Machinery and intelligence" in 1950s.
- LIZA was a chatterbot created by Joseph Weizenbaum which is believed to have been one of the first programs to pass Turing test.
- It managed to mislead many people by mimicking the role of a therapist. It encouraged the people to speak more by cross questioning them.
IBM's Deep Blue
In 1997, AI achieved a remarkable goal when the world chess champion and grand master Gary Kasparov was defeated by IBM’s Deep Blue, a chess playing computer program.
Kismet is a robot made in late 1990s. This robot had the capability to recognize and simulate facial expressions. It responded by making different facial expression like those of happiness, excitement, sorrow and so on for different scenarios.
- AIBO(The Artificial Intelligence robot) was a robotic dog created by Sony in 1999 originally for entertainment purposes.
- This Robotic dog, AIBO has the capability to develop its own personality over time. It also has face recognition capability which helps it to detect different members of your family.
- ASIMO(Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) is a humanoid robot which was designed by Honda in 2000. ASIMO has the capability to recognize and simulate the surrounding environment such as recognition of moving objects, postures, sounds and faces etc.
- It is basically designed to help people. It can even recognize when a person offers it a handshake or calls it by the name.
- Siri was the first digital virtual assistant designed originally by SRI International and is widely used in iOS, macOS, iPadOS and watchOS.
- Siri has many amazing features like scheduling events and reminders, Navigation, device settings, Phone and text actions, handle payments through Apple Pay and much more.
Google DeepMind's AlphaGo(2016)
In 2016, Google DeepMind's AlphaGo defeated a professional Korean 'Go champion' who won 27 major tournaments from 2002 to 2016.
Microsoft's Cortana and Amazon's Alexa
- The era of virtual assistants started with the release of Apple's Siri. Since then, many developments were made in this field. Alexa, a virtual assistant by Amazon, first came into existence in November,2014 whereas Microsoft announced the availability of Cortana for Windows 10 desktops and mobile devices in January,2015.
- In today's times, these virtual assistants are capable of performing so many daily based tasks with a remarkable level of efficiency
HOW DOES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WORK?
AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data. AI is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods and technologies, as well as the following major subfields:
- Machine learning automates analytical model building. It uses methods from neural networks, statistics, operations research and physics to find hidden insights in data without explicitly being programmed for where to look or what to conclude.
- A neural network is a type of machine learning that is made up of interconnected units (like neurons) that processes information by responding to external inputs, relaying information between each unit. The process requires multiple passes at the data to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.
Deep learning uses huge neural networks with many layers of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved training techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data. Common applications include image and speech recognition.
Cognitive computing is a subfield of AI that strives for a natural, human-like interaction with machines. Using AI and cognitive computing, the ultimate goal is for a machine to simulate human processes through the ability to interpret images and speech – and then speak coherently in response
Computer vision relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.
Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.
HOW IS AI USED?
"AI is a computer system able to perform tasks that ordinarily require human intelligence... Many of these artificial intelligence systems are powered by machine learning, some of them are powered by deep learning and some of them are powered by very boring things like rules."
Artificial intelligence generally falls under two broad categories:
- Narrow AI: Sometimes referred to as "Weak AI," this kind of artificial intelligence operates within a limited context and is a simulation of human intelligence. Narrow AI is often focused on performing a single task extremely well and while these machines may seem intelligent, they are operating under far more constraints and limitations than even the most basic human intelligence.
-Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): AGI, sometimes referred to as "Strong AI," is the kind of artificial intelligence we see in the movies, like the robots from Westworld or Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation. AGI is a machine with general intelligence and, much like a human being, it can apply that intelligence to solve any problem.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
1) Reduction in Human Error
2) Takes risks instead of Humans
3) Available 24x7
4) Helping in Repetitive Jobs
5) Digital Assistance
6) Faster Decisions
7) Daily Applications
8) New Inventions
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
1)High cost of implementation
2)Doesn't improve with experience
4)Risk of unemployment
I am going to close by giving some general conclusions about Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI is the ability of machines to adapt to external inputs by forming rational behaviors based on that input. Using AI, we can create systems that can perform tasks that would otherwise require human intelligence.
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