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Saravanan Gnanaguru for Kubernetes Community Days Chennai

Posted on • Updated on • Originally published at dev.to

Kubernetes Learning Part IV: Workload Resources - Deployment and ReplicaSet

Kubernetes Learning Part IV

Table of Contents

Introduction

  • In this part-IV of the Kubernetes learning series, we will discuss the concepts of what is workload resources - deployment and replica set
  • Topics and definitions are hand picked from Kubernetes documentation for the purpose of learning.
  • - This blog is part of the Kubernetes Learning series

K8s Workload Resources

  • In the previous blog, we discussed k8s workload concept of pods (docs ref).
  • So workload resources can be used for different types workload management and deployment
  • Kubernetes provides several built-in workload resources:

    • Deployment and ReplicaSet (replacing the legacy resource ReplicationController). Deployment is a good fit for managing a stateless application workload on your cluster, where any Pod in the Deployment is interchangeable and can be replaced if needed.
    • StatefulSet lets you run one or more related Pods that track state somehow. For example, if your workload records data persistently, you can run a StatefulSet that matches each Pod with a PersistentVolume. Your code, running in the Pods for that StatefulSet, can replicate data to other Pods in the same StatefulSet to improve overall resilience.
    • DaemonSet defines Pods that provide node-local facilities. These might be fundamental to the operation of your cluster, such as a networking helper tool, or be part of an add-on. Every time you add a node to your cluster that matches the specification in a DaemonSet, the control plane schedules a Pod for that DaemonSet onto the new node.
    • Job and CronJob define tasks that run to completion and then stop. Jobs represent one-off tasks, whereas CronJobs recur according to a schedule.
  • We will discuss about managing the Deployment and Replica set and the behavior when updating the deployments


Kubernetes Object Management

  • When we talk about creating Kubernetes manifest definition, it is important to know about 3 types of object management

  • kubectl tool supports three kinds of object management:

  • Imperative commands :

    • When using imperative commands, a user operates directly on live objects in a cluster. The user provides operations to the kubectl command as arguments or flags.
    • This is the recommended way to get started or to run a one-off task in a cluster. Because this technique operates directly on live objects, it provides no history of previous configurations.
kubectl create deployment nginx --image nginx
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  • Imperative object configuration :
    • In imperative object configuration, the kubectl command specifies the operation (create, replace, etc.), optional flags and at least one file name. The file specified must contain a full definition of the object in YAML or JSON format.
kubectl create -f nginx.yaml
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Also, we can use kubectl edit , kubectl delete and kubectl replace in this method of object configuration

Refer the section Updating the deployment for usage details

  • Declarative object configuration :
    • When using declarative object configuration, a user operates on object configuration files stored locally, however the user does not define the operations to be taken on the files.
    • Create, update, and delete operations are automatically detected per-object by kubectl.
    • This enables working on directories, where different operations might be needed for different objects.
  • Example below, processes all object configuration files in the configs directory, and creates or patches the live objects. You can first diff to see what changes are going to be made, and then apply:
kubectl diff -f configs/
kubectl apply -f configs/
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Deployments

  • A Deployment provides declarative updates for Pods and ReplicaSets.
  • We can describe a desired state in a Deployment, and the Deployment Controller changes the actual state to the desired state.
  • Deployments can be used to create new ReplicaSets, or to remove existing Deployments and adopt all their resources with new Deployments.
  • Example of a Deployment. It creates a ReplicaSet to bring up 3 nginx Pods:
  • Create a deployment manifest and save it as deployment.yml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx:1.21-alpine
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: "128Mi"
            cpu: "500m"
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In this example:

  • A Deployment named nginx-deployment is created, indicated by the .metadata.name field.

  • The Deployment creates 3 replicated Pods, indicated by the .spec.replicas field.

  • The .spec.selector field defines how the Deployment finds which Pods to manage. In this case, you select a label that is defined in the Pod template (app: nginx).

  • The template field contains the following sub-fields:

    • The Pods are labeled app: nginx using the .metadata.labels field.
    • The Pod template's specification, or .template.spec field, indicates that the Pods run one nginx container, which runs the nginx Docker Hub image at version 1.21-alpine.
  • Create one container and name it nginx using the .spec.template.spec.containers[0].name field.

Creating a Deployment

  • Now let us try out different kubectl commands to learn about the k8s deployment workload resource
  • Run minikube start to kick start the local k8s cluster

  • Use kubectl apply -f to execute the deployment manifest

$ kubectl apply -f deployment.yml 
deployment.apps/nginx-deployment created
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  • Use kubectl get deployments command to list out the deployments manifest
$ kubectl get deployments
NAME               READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
nginx-deployment   3/3     3            3           76s
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  • Our manifest definition has 3 replicas of nginx pods defined in it.
  • List the pods using the command kubectl get po
$ kubectl get po
NAME                               READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9-6cxtc   1/1     Running   0          80s
nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9-g7v7c   1/1     Running   0          80s
nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9-hcj4s   1/1     Running   0          80s
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  • Replica Sets can be viewed using the command kubectl get rs
$ kubectl get rs
NAME                         DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9   3         3         3       101s
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  • Now let us describe the deployment we just created.
  • Use the command kubectl describe
$ kubectl describe deployment nginx-deployment
Name:                   nginx-deployment
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Thu, 01 Oct 2021 12:27:22 +0530
Labels:                 app=nginx
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision: 1
Selector:               app=nginx
Replicas:               3 desired | 3 updated | 3 total | 3 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  app=nginx
  Containers:
   nginx:
    Image:      nginx:1.21-alpine
    Port:       80/TCP
    Host Port:  0/TCP
    Limits:
      cpu:        500m
      memory:     128Mi
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
  Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 (3/3 replicas created)
Events:
  Type    Reason             Age   From                   Message
  ----    ------             ----  ----                   -------
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  2m8s  deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 to 3

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Replica Set

  • Purpose of the ReplicaSet is to maintain a stable set of replica Pods running at any given time.
  • As such, it is often used to guarantee the availability of a specified number of identical Pods.

  • It is recommended to use replica-set within deployment definition. Because a Deployment is a higher-level concept that manages ReplicaSets and provides declarative updates to Pods along with a lot of other useful features.

  • Replica set has been mentioned using the spec.replicas value in our deployment definition

  • We will now see, what happens when we update the deployment and what is the role of replica set while updating the deployments


Updating the deployment

  • We will now change the nginx image id from 1.21-alpine to 1.21
  • We will imperatively update the deployment definition using kubectl edit command
$ kubectl edit deployment/nginx-deployment
deployment.apps/nginx-deployment edited
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  • We have updated the deployment which already has running pods
  • So let us check the deployment status using kubectl rollout command
$ kubectl rollout status deployment/nginx-deployment
deployment "nginx-deployment" successfully rolled out
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  • Once the rollout is complete, we will check the status of pods and deployment using kubectl describe command
$ kubectl describe deployment nginx-deployment
Name:                   nginx-deployment
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Thu, 16 Sep 2021 12:27:22 +0530
Labels:                 app=nginx
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision: 2
Selector:               app=nginx
Replicas:               3 desired | 3 updated | 3 total | 3 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  app=nginx
  Containers:
   nginx:
    Image:      nginx:1.21
    Port:       80/TCP
    Host Port:  0/TCP
    Limits:
      cpu:        500m
      memory:     128Mi
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
  Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7 (3/3 replicas created)
Events:
  Type    Reason             Age    From                   Message
  ----    ------             ----   ----                   -------
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  7m45s  deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 to 3
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  52s    deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7 to 1
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  39s    deployment-controller  Scaled down replica set nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 to 2
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  39s    deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7 to 2
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  38s    deployment-controller  Scaled down replica set nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 to 1
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  38s    deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7 to 3
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  37s    deployment-controller  Scaled down replica set nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9 to 0
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  • Now let us keenly observe the behavior of deployment and replicas described above,
    • Deployment ensures that only a certain number of Pods are down while they are being updated. By default, it ensures that at least 75% of the desired number of Pods are up (25% max unavailable).
    • Deployment also ensures that only a certain number of Pods are created above the desired number of Pods. By default, it ensures that at most 125% of the desired number of Pods are up (25% max surge).
    • Here you see that when you first created the Deployment, it created a ReplicaSet (nginx-deployment-2035384211) and scaled it up to 3 replicas directly.
    • When you updated the Deployment, it created a new ReplicaSet (nginx-deployment-1564180365) and scaled it up to 1 and then scaled down the old ReplicaSet to 2, so that at least 2 Pods were available and at most 4 Pods were created at all times.
    • It then continued scaling up and down the new and the old ReplicaSet, with the same rolling update strategy. Finally, you'll have 3 available replicas in the new ReplicaSet, and the old ReplicaSet is scaled down to 0.

Spec Selector Behavior of Replica Set

  • Each time when a new Deployment is observed by the Deployment controller, a ReplicaSet is created to bring up the desired Pods.
  • Once the Deployment is updated, the existing ReplicaSet that controls Pods whose labels match .spec.selector but whose template does not match .spec.template are scaled down.
  • Eventually, the new ReplicaSet is scaled to .spec.replicas and all old ReplicaSets is scaled to 0.
$ kubectl get rs
NAME                          DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7   3         3         3       69s
nginx-deployment-c7768ddc9    0         0         0       8m2s

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-25z2c   1/1     Running   0          106s
nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-m7hst   1/1     Running   0          119s
nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-zrbc2   1/1     Running   0          105s

$ kubectl describe pod nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-25z2c
Name:         nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-25z2c
Namespace:    default
Priority:     0
Node:         minikube/192.168.49.2
Start Time:   Thu, 16 Sep 2021 12:34:28 +0530
Labels:       app=nginx
              pod-template-hash=6f88dfb7c7
Annotations:  <none>
Status:       Running
IP:           172.17.0.5
IPs:
  IP:           172.17.0.5
Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7
Containers:
  nginx:
    Container ID:   docker://9fd85eb81263d16bc73752a1275c35d6cdc0eb3074734d0820bd327eb39b30b2
    Image:          nginx:1.21
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://nginx@sha256:853b221d3341add7aaadf5f81dd088ea943ab9c918766e295321294b035f3f3e
    Port:           80/TCP
    Host Port:      0/TCP
    State:          Running
      Started:      Thu, 16 Sep 2021 12:34:29 +0530
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Limits:
      cpu:     500m
      memory:  128Mi
    Requests:
      cpu:        500m
      memory:     128Mi
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from kube-api-access-4b8m4 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True 
  Ready             True 
  ContainersReady   True 
  PodScheduled      True 
Volumes:
  kube-api-access-4b8m4:
    Type:                    Projected (a volume that contains injected data from multiple sources)
    TokenExpirationSeconds:  3607
    ConfigMapName:           kube-root-ca.crt
    ConfigMapOptional:       <nil>
    DownwardAPI:             true
QoS Class:                   Guaranteed
Node-Selectors:              <none>
Tolerations:                 node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
                             node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
Events:
  Type    Reason     Age    From               Message
  ----    ------     ----   ----               -------
  Normal  Scheduled  2m18s  default-scheduler  Successfully assigned default/nginx-deployment-6f88dfb7c7-25z2c to minikube
  Normal  Pulled     2m18s  kubelet            Container image "nginx:1.21" already present on machine
  Normal  Created    2m18s  kubelet            Created container nginx
  Normal  Started    2m18s  kubelet            Started container nginx

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Conclusion

  • In this blog we have seen the concepts of workload resources deployment and replica set and their behavior
  • This article was previously published on my dev community personal profile, re-publishing for the benefit of a wider audience.
  • Hope this article is helpful to people getting started with kubernetes concepts.

Thanks for reading!

Bibliography

workloads
Deployment
ReplicaSet

Heads up for Next Blog

In the next blog, we will deep-dive into other Workload resources and how to create and manage them.

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