These are used to isolate environments and resolve dependency conflict resolution.
This ensure projects have isolated siloes where they live and have their own dependency tree that don't interfere with one another.
Another thing, feel free to jump to sections that you're only interested in!
- Python Dependencies
- Installing Libraries
- Using a requirements.txt
- Using env
- Using venv
- Using virtualenvwrapper
You will often use 3rd-party libraries - non-default libraries which doesn't come along with Python.
You'll have to import and install them before they can be used.
- normally installed using pip or easy_install
- libraries are pulled from the pupi.org or Python Package Index which as an enormous index of libraries
To install a library, as example, django
pip install django
To install a specific version of django,
pip install django==2.2.12
To check the version of Django installed, you can run any of the commands below:
django --version python -m django --version
You can also view the versions of all installed packages, including Django,
pip freeze python -m pip freeze
To save all of these data (versions of each modules) to be reused or processed later, you can forward them to a file.
pip freeze > module-versions.txt
To upgrade to a newer version
pip install --upgrade django
To uninstall it, don't delete the folder, instead
pip uninstall django
Another example: installing the "site" library
import site print(site.getsitepackages())
Using a requirements.txt
Another way to install multiple third parties with just a single command is to put them into a single requirements.txt file and use pip to to do a bulk-install.
(Note that it's recommended to install modules for a project in a virtual environment. Read below to learn more about this.)
To install from a requirements file
pip install -r requirements.txt
Let's take django as our example again. We recently installed django version 2.2.12. If we are to install a new version, v3.0, then it will override and uninstall the v2.2.12.
Some projects need specific versions of a library and this is where virtual environments come into play. Virtual environments exist to isolate projects and their dependencies from one another.
To create a virtual environment, we can use venv
python -m venv my-project-1
After you run this, a folder for the virtual environment will be created.
$ ll total 0 drwxr-xr-x 1 Eden Jose 197610 0 Sep 14 12:16 my-project-1/ $ ll my-project-1/ total 5 drwxr-xr-x 1 Eden Jose 197610 0 Sep 14 12:16 Include/ drwxr-xr-x 1 Eden Jose 197610 0 Sep 14 12:16 Lib/ -rw-r--r-- 1 Eden Jose 197610 121 Sep 14 12:16 pyvenv.cfg drwxr-xr-x 1 Eden Jose 197610 0 Sep 14 12:16 Scripts/
To activate a virtual environment, run the "activate" script inside the Scripts folder of the project. As an example,
$ source ./my-project-1/Scripts/activate $ (my-project-1) Eden Jose@EdenJose MINGW64 ~/Desktop/Git/5-Virtual-Envs
Notice that the name of the virtual environment can now be seen at the prompt. To exit out of the virtual environment, simply run
Another way to create virtual environments is through virtual env.
Note that virtual env doesn't ship alongside your Python installation. To install virtual env,
pip install virtualenv
This take a similar step to create a new environment and activate it,
virtualenv my-project-2 # you can also use python -m virtualenv my-project-2
You can create the virtual environment with a different Python installation by using the "-p" flag
# Check the python installations you currently have $ where python C:\Users\Eden Jose\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python39\python.exe C:\Users\Eden Jose\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python38\python.exe # You can choose from this two and create a virtual env with that version python -m virtualenv -p
This is what I am using in labs and even at work. Treat this section as standalone, and can be setup even without the venv or env
This is another virtualenv library which wraps up some useful management functionality for virtualenv. One feature of this is it manages a single location of all your projects.
Unlike virtualenv and env where the project folder is created on your current working directory, virtualenvwrapper creates a folder is the user's home directory.
virtualenvwrapper maintains this folder where all your environment folders are created by default. You can setup your own directory where all the virtual environments folder will be created by creating the variable WORKON_HOME.
I had some problems when I was trying this one. As a solution, I just uninstalled any existing virtualenvwrapper installed on my system and do a fresh install. This
To do a fresh install,
joseeden@EdenJose:~$ sudo pip uninstall virtualenvwrapper joseeden@EdenJose:~$ sudo pip install virtualenvwrapper
Next, append this to your .bashrc file
# Change the WORKON_HOME path to your directory where you want all your virtual environment folders created export WORKON_HOME='/mnt/c/Users/Eden Jose/Desktop/Git/5-Virtual-Envs' export VIRTUALENVWRAPPER_PYTHON='/usr/bin/python3' source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh
To create a virtual environment
mkvirtualenv <name> # Sample joseeden@EdenJose:~$ mkvirtualenv project-a created virtual environment CPython3.8.10.final.0-64 in 21319ms... (project-a) joseeden@EdenJose:~$ # Note that to create another virtual envionment, exit out of the previous virtual environment by running "deactivate" joseeden@EdenJose:~$ mkvirtualenv project-b created virtual environment CPython3.8.10.final.0-64 in 21319ms... (project-b) joseeden@EdenJose:~$
To see all your virtual environments,
joseeden@EdenJose:~$ workon project-a project-b
To switch between virtual environments, you can simply run
joseeden@EdenJose:~$ workon project-b (project-b) joseeden@EdenJose:~$
To exit out of a virtual environment
(project-b) joseeden@EdenJose:~$ deactivate joseeden@EdenJose:~$
mkvirtualenv: command not found
If you get an error "command not found", this might mean virtualenvwrapper was not properly installed.
You can simply re-do the installation.
I had issues also when trying the virtualenvwrapper on Git Bash in VSCode so I decided to run the commands below in WSL.
sudo pip uninstall virtualenv -y sudo pip uninstall virtualenvwrapper -y sudo pip install virtualenv sudo pip install virtualenvwrapper echo "WORKON_HOME='/mnt/c/Users/Eden Jose/Desktop/Git/5-Virtual-Envs'" >> ~/.bashrc echo "source `which virtualenvwrapper.sh`" >> ~/.bashrc . ~/.bashrc
virtualenvwrapper Command '' not found, but can be installed with ...
When you create a virtual environment using the mkvirtualenv command, you might see this error message
joseeden@EdenJose:/mnt/c/Users/Eden Jose$ mkvirtualenv project-a Command '' not found, but can be installed with: sudo apt install mailutils-mh # version 1:3.7-2.1, or sudo apt install meshio-tools # version 4.0.4-1 sudo apt install mmh # version 0.4-2 sudo apt install nmh # version 1.7.1-6 sudo apt install termtris # version 1.3-1
To resolve this, add the lins below (in this order) to your .bashrc file
export VIRTUALENVWRAPPER_PYTHON='/usr/bin/python3' source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh ## Note that the path depends on where your Python is installed. To check which python which python3
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