This is my first article diving into what I call linear containers. I'll first describe Python lists before moving to Ruby arrays in the second one, ending with Rust vectors in my last one.

Why Python, Ruby and Rust only? It's a subjective choice, and the answer is because these are the languages I like the most. Of course, similar collections of elements exist in other languages: Java, C++, you name it.

Python and Ruby are dynamic languages, while Rust is a strongly typed one, which entails a main difference: Python lists and Ruby arrays can contain various elements, not necessarily having the same type, whereas Rust vectors are containers of elements of the same type.

In this first article, I'll tackle Python lists. I'm using the last version coming with Linux Mint 19, version 3.6.7:

```
Python 3.6.7 (default, Oct 22 2018, 11:32:17)
[GCC 8.2.0] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>
```

# Basic Python lists

I'll give some examples for using lists in Python but I'll just skim over some of the useful features. I'll focus on other interesting facets of lists, rather than basic ones. For a list of detailed operations and functions on lists, refer to the official Python documentation.

Creating a list in Python is easy peasy:

```
digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
a = ["one", "two", "three", "four"]
# an empty list
empty = []
```

You can mix types:

```
mixed_list = ["one", 2, "three", 4]
```

or even create a list of lists:

```
binomial_coefficients = [
[1],
[1,1],
[1,2,1],
[1,3,3,1],
[1,4,6,4,1],
[1,5,10,10,5,1]
]
```

To initialize a list with the same element, just use * :

```
['A'] * 5 # gives ['A', 'A', 'A', 'A', 'A']
```

The number of elements of a list is given by the built-in function *len()*:

```
len(binomial_coefficients) # gives 6
```

You can also store objects, classes or functions in a list:

```
import math
# list of functions
trigo = [math.sin, math.cos, math.tan]
# list of lambdas
powers = [
lambda x: x*x,
lambda x: x*x*x,
lambda x: x**4
]
# list of classes
collections = [list, dict, set]
# list of objects
empty_collections = [list(), dict(), set()]
```

## Accessing elements

Accessing list elements is business as usual, with some very handy features :

```
first_binomial = binomial_coefficients[0]
last_binomial = binomial_coefficients[-1]
fifth_binomial = binomial_coefficients[-2]
len(binomial_coefficients[4]) # gives 5
```

Sublists are possible using index slices:

```
first3_binomials = binomial_coefficients[0:3]
```

## List operations

- adding an element

```
digits.append(10)
```

- deleting an element by index

```
del digits[10]
```

- concatenating lists

```
digits = [0,1,2,3,4] + [5,6] + [7,8,9]
```

- testing element membership

```
if 9 in digits:
print("9 is a digit! Such a surprise ;-)")
```

## Looping through a list

Use the for-in construct:

```
for d in digits:
print(d)
```

To get the element index when looping, use the built-in *enumerate()* function:

```
for i,d in enumerate(digits):
print(f"{d} is the {i}-th digit")
```

# More advanced usage

## Some useful functions on lists

```
digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
sum(digits) # gives 45
max(digits) # gives 9
min(digits) # gives 0
# min & max could also be used with other types, with the key keyword argument
lipsum = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.".split()
# get any word being the longest
max(lipsum, key=len) # gives 'consectetur'
```

The *zip()* built-in function combines several lists to create an iterable of tuples, created by taking the i-th element of each list:

```
a = [0,1,2,3]
b = [0,1,2,3]
# display tuples
for i in zip(a,b):
print(i)
```

## List comprehensions

List comprehensions are an effecitve way to create new lists or extract elements from a list:

```
# extract words ending with 't'
lipsum = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.".split()
end_with_t = [w for w in lipsum if w.endswith('t')] # gives ['sit', 'incididunt', 'ut', 'et']
# convert to uppercase
[w.upper() for w in lipsum]
# get only words of length 5 (including commas)
[w for w in lipsum if len(w) == 5] # gives ['Lorem', 'ipsum', 'dolor', 'amet,', 'elit,', 'magna']
# create new objects from a list of classes
[c() for c in [list, dict, set]]
# get pi/4 value from trigonometric functions list
import math
trigo = [math.sin, math.cos, math.tan]
[f(math.pi/4) for f in trigo]
```

You can also use nested iteration with comprehensions:

```
a = [0,1,2,3]
b = [0,1,2,3]
[[i,j] for i in a for j in b] # gives [[0, 0], [0, 1], [0, 2], [0, 3], [1, 0], [1, 1], [1, 2], [1, 3], [2, 0], [2, 1], [2, 2], [2, 3], [3, 0], [3, 1], [3, 2], [3, 3]]
```

but beware this is a cartesian product:

```
a = [0,1,2,3]
b = [0,1,2,3]
# this doesn't give the summation of both lists
[i+j for i in a for j in b] # gives [0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5, 6]
```

Use this to get the summation of elements position-wise:

```
a = [0,1,2,3]
b = [0,1,2,3]
[x+y for i,x in enumerate(a) for j,y in enumerate(b) if i == j] # gives [0, 2, 4, 6]
# gives the same result
[i+j for (i,j) in list(zip(a,b))]
```

##
Using the built-in *list()* function

The built-in *list()* function is very powerful to create lists in a concise and efficient way. As soon as the item you pass into *list()* is iterable, it uses its iterator to create a list:

```
# this creates a list of a-z chars
a_to_z = list("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
# create digits and the first 100 even numbers
digits = list(range(10))
even = list(range(0,100,2))
# list() is idempotent, but this creates another list, not another reference
list(digits) # gives back a copy of digits
```

This obviously works for user defined iterators:

```
class One:
def __iter__(self):
yield "one"
yield "un"
yield "ein"
yield "uno"
# gives ['one', 'un', 'ein', 'uno']
print(list(One()))
```

## Inheriting the list class

Nothing prevents you to subclass the *list* class to create your own user-defined lists. This example implements a way to access elements of a list by giving several indexes:

```
""" Based on list, but accept sparse indexes """
class MyList(list):
def __getitem__(self, *args):
# if only one index, just return the element as usual
if type(args[0]) == int or type(args[0]) == slice:
return list.__getitem__(self, args[0])
# otherwise build a list with asked indexes
else:
return [x for i,x in enumerate(self) if i in args[0]]
my_list = MyList(list("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"))
print(my_list[0]) # gives 'a'
print(my_list[0:2]) # gives ['a', 'b']
print(my_list[0,24,25]) # gives ['a', 'y', 'z']
```

## Acting on lists

Using functional programming built-in functions, you can extract values from a list, or get another list from the source one.

###
*map()*

Using the *map()* built-in function, it's possible to get an image of a mapping on the list. If you consider a list as a mathematical set of elements, *map()* gives the image set through the considered function.

```
a_to_z = list("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz")
A_to_Z = list(map(str.upper, a_to_z))
```

*map()* itself gives back a map object which is iterable, that's why to get a list, the *list()* function is needed.

Of course, the map function to pass as the first argument could be any function, and any lambda having one argument is possible:

```
digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
list(map(lambda x: x*10, digits)) # gives tenths
# refer to binomial_coefficients above
list(map(sum, binomial_coefficients)) # gives [1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32]
```

or even a user-defined function:

```
# contrived example
def square(x):
return x*x
# calculate first 9 perfect squares
digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
print(list(map(square, digits)))
```

*filter()*

As its name suggests, this built-in function is used to sieve elements from a list, using some criteria. Elements kept are those where the function given as the first argument to *filter()* returns *True*.

```
# extract even numbers
digits = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
list(filter(lambda x: x%2 == 0, digits)) # gives [0, 2, 4, 6, 8]
# extract words less than 4 chars
lipsum = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.".split()
print(list(filter(lambda w: len(w) < 4, lipsum))) # gives ['sit', 'sed', 'do', 'ut', 'et']
```

*reduce()*

Starting from Python3, the *reduce()* function has been moved to the *functools* module. It basically reduces an iterable to a single value, by cumulating calls to a function.

So *reduce(function, iterable, initializer)* could be defined as:

```
let f a Python function, a=(a0,a1,...., an) an iterable giving (n+1) values, then:
reduce(f,a,init) = f(.....f(f(f(init,a0), a1), a2)....., an)
```

Examples:

```
from functools import reduce
digits = list(range(10))
# sum of first 10 digits
reduce(lambda x,y: x+y, digits) # gives 45
# this uses an initializer
reduce(lambda x,y: x+y, digits, 10) # gives 55 = 45+10
# a more sophisticated example: this uses the nested multiplication to compute the value of a polynomial, given its coefficients and the unknown value z (uses type hinting btw)
def nested(z: int, coeff: list) -> int:
res = reduce(lambda x,y: z*x+y, coeff)
return res
# easy computation of the nested square root which converges to the golden ratio
import math
reduce(lambda x,y: math.sqrt(x+y), [1]*100) # gives 1.618033988749895
# same for the canonical continued fraction
reduce(lambda x,y: y+1/x, [1]*100)
# this sums all columns of a matrix
matrix = [[i]*4 for i in range(4)]
reduce(lambda a,b: [x+y for i,x in enumerate(a) for j,y in enumerate(b) if i == j], matrix) # gives [6, 6, 6, 6]
```

In the next post, I'll explain Ruby arrays.

Photo by Susan Yin on Unsplash

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