Not So Basic: Devenv is a series of tutorials in which we aim to have a nice, productive and portable development environment that takes the best of both worlds between Linux and windows.
In this third tutorial "Improve your experience using git cli" we focus on git:
- Installation and basic configuration
- P4merge as visual diff and merge tools
- Some handy aliases
- SSH authentication for GitHub and GitLab and SSH agent
To complete this tutorial, you need to:
- Install and configure git
- Visual diff and merge
- Add command aliases
- Check your configuration
- Authenticate through SSH
git is a version control system that allows you to track every modification on your codebase. With a distributed paradigm you can use git locally, and sync changes with other repositories whenever you need.
git is not installed on your machine, you can run:
sudo apt install git-all
Follow the instructions described in this article when you are getting started with
git CLI, then you can use a lot of variables to improve your configuration.
You can specify one of the three
git configuration storage options:
- Global configurations, for all the repositories of the current user. After you run your first git config global command, git creates a
.gitconfigfile for you in your home folder.
- Global configurations, for all the repositories of all users and stored in
- Local, the default scope, stores the configuration for the current repository, in
.git/configfile. this configuration is not tracked.
Git associates all commit with a user, useful when you are working in a team to see the author of a change. You have to configure your username and your email:
git config --global user.name "John Doe" git config --global user.email firstname.lastname@example.org
git commands require an editor, you can set your preferred choice with:
git config --global core.editor vim
Files use special characters to represent the end of a line so that the text editors can display the next characters in a new line. The problem is that theses special characters differ depending on the operating systems. This can lead to file execution errors. You can use
git autocrlf option to fix line endings.
git documentation recommends setting autocrlf to
true for Windows users so that it converts line endings to
CRLF when you check out code.
I would suggest to use
LF line endings even on Windows to avoid some annoying problems.
For instance, you may encounter hard to resolve bugs when running a Docker container you build locally because of files containing
CRLF line endings copied into the Docker image.
You can probably configure your IDE to use
LF line endings as well, so you can run the following command to make
git automatically convert
LF on commit:
git config --global core.autocrlf input
git with CLI if you do not have a long experience with
git, because it invites you to understand how it works under the hood.
That said, GUI tools can help, especially in case of conflict resolution. Many IDEs can handle that well, but it is also nice to have a tool dedicated for that purpose.
P4Merge allows you to visualize the differences between files, you can even use it to compare images. It also offers an integration with
git to show differences between two versions and to resolve conflicts.
Download and install the version that match your OS. For Windows users using
git through WSL, download and install the Windows version.
difftool is a
git command that can display all the differences between HEAD and a given commit or between two commits. When you use it without arguments, it displays the current unstaged changes. It is common to run it before staging files to check that all the changes are coherent for a single commit.
git diff tool, then specify the command to execute.
Here is an example for a WSL setup that uses
p4merge for other systems:
git config --global diff.tool p4merge git config --global difftool.p4merge.cmd 'p4merge.exe $LOCAL $REMOTE'
difftool prompt; otherwise your cli will asks you to confirm between each file display:
git config --global --add difftool.prompt false
Now you can go to any
git repository, add a modification and run:
p4merge will show you unstaged differences.
mergetool shares some similarities with
difftool but it offers the ability to resolve conflict. It displays two conflicted files and help to merge them in a result preview.
git config --global merge.tool p4merge git config --global mergetool.p4merge.cmd 'p4merge.exe $BASE $LOCAL $REMOTE $MERGED' git config --global --add mergetool.prompt false
false to avoid preserving
.orig files after performing a merge:
git config --global --add mergetool.keepBackup false
true so that exit code returned by
p4merge indicates merge success:
git config --global --add mergetool.trustexitcode true
git via CLI, you can save time by setting shortcut aliases for common
ci instead of
git config --global --add alias.ci commit
co instead of
git config --global --add alias.co checkout
br instead of
git config --global --add alias.br branch
cl instead of
git config --global --add alias.cl clone
cp instead of
git config --global --add alias.cp cherry-pick
st instead of
status, with additional options.
s to have an output in the short-format, and
b to show the branch and tracking information:
git config --global --add alias.st 'status -sb'
ds instead of
difftool, with additional
staged option that runs
p4merge to show differences between head and staged files:
git config --global --add alias.ds 'difftool --staged'
last to show the latest commit:
git config --global --add alias.last 'log -1 --stat'
unstage to cancel
git add actions and reset all staged files:
git config --global --add alias.unstage 'reset HEAD --'
clear to remove all the current modifications.
Warning! You cannot revert this action:
git config --global --add alias.clear 'checkout .'
lg to display
git history within a nice graph:
git config --global --add alias.lg 'log --graph --abbrev-commit --date=relative --all --pretty=format:"%C(green)%h%C(reset) -%C(red)%d%C(reset) %s %C(yellow)(%cr) %C(blue)<%an>%C(reset)"'
Here are some details about options used in this alias:
graph: adds a graph to represent branches on the left of logged commits
abbrev-commit: displays a short commit hash instead of a full hash
date=relative: displays elapsed time instead of commit date
all: shows all commits in the history of branches and tags
pretty=format: displays one line commits:
%h: commit hash in green followed by a dash
%d: branch name in red
%s: commit message
%cr: elapsed time in yellow between parentheses
%an: author name in blue between chevrons
You can display the current configuration file with:
The output should look like this:
[user] name = John Doe email = email@example.com [core] editor = vim autocrlf = input [diff] tool = p4merge [difftool "p4merge"] cmd = p4merge.exe $LOCAL $REMOTE [difftool] prompt = false [merge] tool = p4merge [mergetool "p4merge"] cmd = p4merge.exe $BASE $LOCAL $REMOTE $MERGED [mergetool] prompt = false keepBackup = false trustexitcode = true [alias] ci = commit co = checkout br = branch cl = clone cp = cherry-pick st = status -sb ds = difftool --staged last = log -1 --stat unstage = reset HEAD -- clear = checkout . lg = log --graph --pretty=format:\"%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %Cblue<%an>%Creset\" --abbrev-commit --date=relative --all
You can also use
git config to list the current configurations:
git config -l
You can use SSH to generate a key pair composed of a public and a private part.
You can add your public key on your
git repository host, so that it accepts SSH connections, then you can avoid writing your email each time you need to perform an action on your remote repository.
Run the following command to generate your SSH key pair, then:
- Indicates the file in which to save the key, hit enter to leave the default value
- Type your passphrase twice
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C firstname.lastname@example.org
The key generator set your key pair
id_rsa file, it should stay safe on your computer.
Display the content of public
id_rsa.pub key and copy the output:
Once you copied your SSH public key, you will register it in your git repository host.
Log in to your
GitHub account, then click on the arrow next to your profile picture on the top right of the page and select
Settings in the drop-down.
SSH and GPG keys on the left of the page.
New SSH key and set the title that describes your machine such as
Work and paste the public key copied in the previous section, then click on
Add SSH key.
Log in to your
GitLab account, then click on the arrow next to your profile picture on the top right of the page and select
Settings in the drop-down.
SSH Keys on the left of the page.
Paste the public key copied in the previous section, then set a title that describes your machine such as
Work, finally click on
You can now clone one of your repositories using the SSH link:
git cl email@example.com:johndoe/my-repository.git
The first time you clone from your repository host,
git asks you to confirm that you want to continue connecting, type
yes, then you will be asked for the passphrase you entered when generating the SSH key pair.
Try to remove the repository you just cloned, then clone it again, you can see that you will only be asked for your password.
As you may have noticed, when using SSH link, you do not need to type your email anymore, but you still spend time typing your password.
You can enter your password once for all with the following workflow, first run:
Then copy and paste the output in your terminal. Once the three commands executed, run:
This makes your SSH identity available for the current session. If you try to clone the repository again,
git do not asks to type your password.
If you close your terminal, reopen it and try to clone the repository,
git asks for your password since your session has been cleared.
You can further simplify the workflow by activating
ssh-agent plugin in your zsh configuration:
Find the line that contains
plugins=, it is probably not commented with
git plugin configured. Remove the comment character, the line should look like this:
ssh-agent plugin next to
git separated with a whitespace, the line should finally look like this:
Save and quit the editor and close your terminal. When you open your terminal again,
ssh-agent asks you to type your SSH passphrase. You can now use
git without requiring typing your password. When you close and open your terminal again, you will retrieve your session. But you will have to type your passphrase when you restart your computer.
In the next article, we will focus on node.js.