DEV Community

Carsten Behrens
Carsten Behrens

Posted on • Originally published at carstenbehrens.com

SOLID: Dependency Inversion Principle in JavaScript and TypeScript

In this series of blog posts, I will take a look at SOLID Principles in the context of JavaScript.

SOLID is an acronym referring to the SOLID Principles of class design that were popularized by Robert C. Martin.

THE DEPENDENCY INVERSION PRINCIPLE

Modules that encapsulate high-level policy should not
depend upon modules that implement details. Rather,
both kinds of modules should depend upon abstractions.
Robert C. Martin

Or in a more simple way:

A. High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Both should depend on abstractions.

B. Abstractions should not depend upon details. Details should depend upon abstractions.

This means that an abstraction (interface or abstract class) should not depend on a detail (concrete classes).

The goal of the DIP is to decouple high-level modules from low-level modules. This safeguards the higher-level modules from possibly breaking changes in lower-level modules.

The best way to explain the DIP is to look at the flow of control of an exemplary program. Let's say we have an API that allows us to create video courses. We have a CourseController that handles the routing, validation, and stuff like that.

Then we have a CourseService that will handle the creation of courses, get courses, and so on...

The simplified code for a class of such program might look like this:

class CourseService {
  // ...
}

class CourseController {
  constructor(courseService: CourseService) {
    this.courseService = courseService;
  }

  async get() {
      // ...
        const data = await courseService.getCourses()
      // ...
  }
}
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

In this example we use a constructor function to provide a CourseService to our CourseController class. The CourseService then gets used in the get method of the CourseController.

The flow of control looks like this:

diagram

This means that a high-level module depends on a low-level module. The question you have to ask yourself is: Do I want my high-level policy to be polluted by low-level detail?

Now imagine that CourseService itself depends on other modules which themselves depend on even lower-level modules. A change in one of the low-level modules could break modules that depend on it.

To stop this from happening we need to invert the dependency. Basically, we will add an interface between the two classes.

Afterward, the flow of control should look like this:

diagram

And the code:

interface ICourseService {
  getCourses(): Promise<ICourse>
}

class CourseService implements ICourseService{
  getCourses() {
    //...
  }
}

class CourseController {
  constructor(courseService: ICourseService) {
    this.courseService = courseService;
  }

  async get() {
    // ...
    const data = await courseService.getCourses()
    // ...
  }
}
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

We changed the CourseController class in such a way that it only refers to an abstraction of the CourseService (the interface ICourseService), not to a concrete class.

Discussion (1)

Collapse
olsard profile image
olsard

Great! Thanks for sharing.