# Assigning value and printing value

a = 1 #using =

print(a) #printing a

b <- a+2 #using <-

print(b)

4 -> a #using ->

print(a)

# printing multiple data types

cat("value of a: ", a, "value of b: ", b)

# check data type of variable a

print(class(a))

# list all available variable at workspace

print(ls())

# usually variable name start with dot are not displayed with ls()

# so use this command to show them too

print(ls(all.names = TRUE))

# print variable at workspace starting with 'as'

print(ls(pattern = 'as'))

# delete variable from workspace, a is variable

rm(a)

# to all variable on workspace

rm(list = ls())

# Use of built in class function

# class gives type of variable

B=4

print(class(B)) # B is a numeric

C= 5L

print(paste('The type of C is',class(C))) # C is integer

# adding to vectors mean array

v <- c(2, 0, 4, 1)

d <- c(2, 14, 0, 11)

sum2 <- (v+d)

print(sum2)

# adding all elements of two arrays

sum4 <- sum(v,d)

print(sum4)

# adding all elements of one array

sum5 <- sum(v)

print(sum5)

# subtract arrays

print(d-v)

# multiply arrays element

print(d*v)

# devide elements of arrays

print(d/v)

# modules of two array's element

print(d%%v) #reminder will be answer

print(d%/%v) #quotient will be answer

# Relational Operators

print(d > v)

print(d < v)

print(d == v)

print(d >= v)

print(d <= v)

print(d != v)

# logical operator

print(d & v)

print(d | v)

print(!v)

# Left Assignment

a <- 3

a = 3

a <<- 3

# Right Assignment

3 -> a

3 ->> a

# Scan value

d <- 1:8

a <- 4

b <- a %in% d

print(b)

# Multiply matrix with its transpose

ma = matrix( c(1,2,3,4,5,6), nrow = 2,ncol = 3,byrow = TRUE) #making matrix

tra = ma %*% t(ma)

print(tra)

# to check a is integer

a <- 10L #L for integer data, integer is also numeric but numeric is not integer

is.integer(a) #true if a is integer

is.numeric(a) #true if a is numeric

is.character(a) #true if a is character

# if else condition

if(a<2){

print("a is less than 2")

}else{

print("a is greater")

}

# array

arr<-c(1,2,3,4,5)

print(arr)

# array from 1 to 4

arr<-1:4

# array from 4 to 1

arr<-4:1

# loop and continue

s<-"value in v"

v<-4:1 #v=4,3,2,1 array

for(c in v){ #c = 4,3,2,1 values from 4 to 1

#print(s)

if(c==2){

next #skipt 2

}

print (c)

}

# repeat and break mean do-while

r<-1

repeat{ #repeat

print(r)

if(r==6){ #until condition match

break

}

r<-r+1

}

# while

w<-1 #starting value

while(w<3){ #condition

print(w)

w<-w+1 #incrementing

}

# procedure

a<-1

b<-2

c<-3

addThreeVlaues <- function(a, b, c){

d<-a+b+c

return(d)

}

d<-addThreeVlaues(a,b,c)

print(d)

# taking input from user as string into a

a<-readline()

# convert string or character into integer and store into b

b<- as.integer(a)

# creat list of diff data types and store in list1

list1 <- list(c(11,12,13,14), "m_Sam", sin, 2)

print(list1[[1]]) #printin first index data that is array

print(list1[[1]][2]) #printing the 2nd element of array

# fibonacci Series

arr[1]<-1

arr[2]<-1

fibonacci <- function(n){

print(arr[1])

print(arr[2])

for (v in 3:n){

arr[v]<-arr[v-1]+arr[v-2]

print(arr[v])

}

}

fibonacci(10)

# creat matrix

ma <- matrix(c(2,3,4,5,6,7), nrow = 2,ncol = 3, byrow = TRUE)

print(ma)

# factors create levels base of distinct values

arr<-c('red', 'green', 'blue', '1', '1', 'red')

fac<-factor(arr)

print(fac)

print(nlevels(fac)) #LEVELS

# data frame

fra <- data.frame(

name = c('zahid ali', 'abdul samad', 'waleed', 'm_No1'),

age = c(20, 19, 19, 25),

gender = c('male', 'male', 'male', 'female')

)

print(fra)

# switch

x <- switch(

2, #expression

'Abdul', #case1

'Samad', #case2

'Bhatti' #case3

)

print(x)

# input from user in array using for loop

rm(list = ls())

arr<-

v <- 1:5

for (i in v) {

arr[i] <- readline(prompt = "enter value: ")

}

# sum of all elements of one array

f<-c(4,0,3,1,2)

sum_G<<-sum(f)

print(sum_G)

# printing multiple strings

a<-"Ab"

b<-"Sam"

c<-"Dev"

print(paste(c,a,b,sep="-", collapse = ""))

# Formating

# Total number of digits displayed. Last digit rounded off.

result <- format(23.123456789, digits = 9)

print(result)

# Display numbers in scientific notation.

result <- format(c(6, 13.14521), scientific = TRUE)

print(result)

# The minimum number of digits to the right of the decimal point.

result <- format(23.47, nsmall = 5)

print(result)

# Format treats everything as a string.

result <- format(6)

print(result)

# Numbers are padded with blank in the beginning for width.

result <- format(13.7, width = 6)

print(result)

# Left justify strings.

result <- format("Hello", width = 8, justify = "1")

print(result)

# Justfy string with center.

result <- format("Hello", width = 8, justify = "c")

print(result)

# factorial

factn<-function(n){

f<-1

for(i in 1:n){

f=f*i

}

print (f)

}

n=0

factn(n)

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