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Yanuar Arifin
Yanuar Arifin

Posted on • Originally published at

Use Golang Migrate on Docker Compose

Previously I setup docker compose for golang application and PostgreSQL. It can run the application and can connect to PostgreSQL. While doing basic CRUD, I found that I need a tool to migrate my database structure and seed the database for easy onboarding and development. Thus I want to use golang-migrate to do that.

What Is Golang Migrate

Contrary to the name, it is not a migration tool specifically created for golang development, although we can use it as a golang package in your application. This tool is a CLI tool that can be installed on Windows, Mac, and Linux. As a CLI tool, it means that no matter what language you use to code, your migration can be managed using this golang-migrate.

Here is the documentation how to install it.

Golang migrate commands

What I use is this for now.

Create migration script:

migrate create -ext sql -dir migrations -seq create_users_table
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  • migrate golang-migrate command

  • create create new migration script, both up and down

  • -ext sql use sql extension

  • -dir migrations the target directory where the migration files is generated

  • -seq make the file name sequential, increment from 1. if not it would be current datetime

  • create_users_table migration files name

which will create 2 files in migrations dir

    ├── Dockerfile
    ├── Dockerfile.multistage
    ├── cmd
    │   └── main.go
    ├── controllers
    ├── docker-compose.yml
    ├── go-market-warehouse-api
    ├── go.mod
    ├── go.sum
    ├── main
    ├── middlewares
    ├── migrations
+++ │   ├── 000001_create_users_table.down.sql <- this
+++ │   └── 000001_create_users_table.up.sql   <- and this
    ├── models
    └── repositories
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000001_create_users_table.up.sql contains the DDL for the changes that I want to make, in this case creating users table

    id UUID PRIMARY KEY DEFAULT uuid_generate_v4(),
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and 000001_create_users_table.down.sql contains the DDL to undo the above code.

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And Apply the migration once the DDL is supplied in the files:

migrate -path /migrations/ -database "postgres://username:password@host:port/db_name?sslmode=disable" up
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Here's the database tables before we execute the migration:

Table list before migration

And here it is after running migration

Table list after migration

  • schema_migrations is used by golang migrate to track migrations
  • users table is the table that being generated from my script above

How To Use Golang Migrate in Docker Compose

Golang migrate has its own image in docker hub. The way to use this, is to create a new service for this golang migrate, then run the migration that targetted to PostgreSQL service. By creating it's own service and execute it, the migration is another service that is not added to the main application service, make the application smaller.

Here's the new golang-migrate service:

  # ... go-market-warehouse-api & local-pg-16 services
    image: migrate/migrate
        condition: service_healthy
      - my-local-net 
      - ./migrations/:/migrations
    command: ["-path", "/migrations/", "-database", "postgres://${PGUSER}:${PGPASSWORD}@local-pg-16:5432/postgres?sslmode=disable", "up"]
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Full code in this commit

image: migrate/migrate base this service to the image of golang-migrate

depends_on: local-pg-16: condition: service_healthy I rearrange the application startup order to PostgreSQL then golang-migrate then go-market-warehouse-api because after we startup the database, I want the database to be updated using latest DDL then the application can connect to database.

networks use already declared network, which is my-local-net to connect to PostgreSQL service

volumes here I specify which directory contains the migration scripts, in my case, it is the migrations directory, the LEFT one ./migrations/.

commands is the arguments the migrate service use to run the migration

The commands is the bash command to apply the migration(s) like the one above without using docker.

migrate -path /migrations/ -database "postgres://${PGUSER}:${PGPASSWORD}@local-pg-16:5432/postgres?sslmode=disable" up
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This is the docker log with migration executed

Docker log for migrate execution

migrate-1 is the service name
1/u create_users_table 1 migration upped, with name of create_users_table

If no new migration found, there won't be message on the log.

That is it for this article, hope you enjoy it.

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