DEV Community

loading...

Inline Function Hooking [Android Internals CTF Ex6]

wireless90 profile image wireless90 Updated on ・6 min read

Get the executable here

  • Add a hook at the end of the pick_number function.
  • You can save your hook at some_space function.
  • The hook that you add must print the return value of pick_number function.
  • Then, give this number as an input to the program in order to reveal the flag.
  • Do not edit any other part of the program or try to reverse decrypt function.

Lets try to run the application, a.out.

root@hammerhead:/data/local/tmp # ./a.out           
Enter number: 123
wrong number :(
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

So it looks like we need to hook the function pick_number and get the number to solve this challenge.

Before we start writing the hook, we need to know where to hook?

The instruction says to:

Add a hook at the end of the pick_number function.

Lets open up the binary in IDA for static analysis and find the address of the end of the pick_number function.

image

We can see that the end of the pick_number function lies around the address 0x000009D0.

We can also see that the instruction at that address is POP {R11, PC}. Remember this, we will be referring to this later.

Lets ensure that is the right address by using gdb to perform dynamic analysis.

We will be using gdbserver in our android and debug the binary a.out remotely using our gdb-multiarch client on our host.

In our android, lets feed the program some random number

root@hammerhead:/data/local/tmp # ./gdbserver localhost:6666 a.out 1234
Process a.out created; pid = 12547
Listening on port 6666

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

In our host, we need to port forward port 6666 first.

┌──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ adb forward tcp:6666 tcp:6666 


┌──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ gdb-multiarch

gef➤  target remote localhost:6666
Remote debugging using localhost:6666
warning: Architecture rejected target-supplied description
Reading /data/local/tmp/a.out from remote target...
warning: File transfers from remote targets can be slow. Use "set sysroot" to access files locally instead.
Reading /data/local/tmp/a.out from remote target...
Reading symbols from target:/data/local/tmp/a.out...
Reading /system/bin/linker from remote target...
Reading /system/bin/linker from remote target...
Reading symbols from target:/system/bin/linker...

gef➤  

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

We have connected to our binary a.out.

Lets print the address of pick_number.

gef➤  p &pick_number
$1 = (<text variable, no debug info> *) 0x2a000980 <pick_number>

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

IDA said that the end of the pick_number function is at 0x000009D0 while GDB says it starts at 0x2a000980.

From this we can deduce that the end of the pick_number function is at 0x2A0009D0.

Lets verify it by printing out the instruction at that address.

gef➤  x/i 0x2a0009d0
   0x2a0009d0 <pick_number+80>: pop     {r11, pc}
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

This is what IDA showed as well, so this is the right address.

We are going to overwrite this instruction with a branch instruction. We want to branch to our shellcode.

The tips for this exercise was to put our shellcode at

You can save your hook at some_space function.

Thus, we need to find out the address of some_space function. Lets do this using GDB as well.

gef➤  p &some_space
$1 = (<text variable, no debug info> *) 0x2a0009e4 <some_space>
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Great, so we know the place to put our shell code is at 0x2a0009e4.

We also, as stated previously, want to put a jump instruction to our shell code therefore replacing 0x2a0009d0 <pick_number+80>: pop {r11, pc}.

So in general, our hooking shell code is gonna look like.

Shellcode Header

1) branch to shellcode

Shellcode

2) Save registers that we going to use
3) Create a file to save return value from pick_number
4) Write the return value to the file
5) Close the file

ShellCode Footer

6) Pop back the registers that were previously saved
7) Write the original instruction that was replaced, pop {r11, pc}
8) Jump back to the original function

Our hook.s looks like

.data
shellcodeHeader:
//Place at 0x2A0009D0
        b shellcode

comeBackHereAfterEverything:


.text
//Place at 0x2A0009E4
shellcode:
        push {r1, r2}
        push {r0} //R0 Contains the number

        //Create file
        mov r7, #8 //creat syscall
        mov r1, #1 //write permission
        adr r0, file_name
        svc #0

        push {r0} //contains the FD

        //WRITE
        mov r7, #4 //write syscall
        mov r2, #4 //4 bytes
        add r1, sp, #4 //buff
        svc #0 // call write

        //CLOSE
        pop {r0} //pops the fd
        mov r7, #6
        svc #0

Override:
        pop {r0}
        pop {r1, r2}

        //original instruction
        pop {r11, pc}
        b comeBackHereAfterEverything

        file_name: .asciz "answer"

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Thus we will save the number into a file called answer.

We can't just compile it now. We need as linker script to tell the linker which section of the code goes to which part of the memory.

Our .data section is going to be at address 0x2A0009D0.

Our .text section is going to be at address 0x2A0009E4.

The linker script, linker_script.ld thus looks like

SECTIONS
{
  . = 0x2A0009D0;
  .data : { *(.data) }

  . = 0x2A0009E4;
  .text : { *(.text) }
}
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Lets compile it. To make it easier, I created my commands into a shellscript file.

┌──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ vim commands.sh

export ndk=/home/razali/Downloads/android-ndk-r21e/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/arm-linux-androideabi/bin

$ndk/as hook.s -o hook.o
$ndk/ld hook.o -T linker_script.ld -o hook
$ndk/objcopy -O binary --only-section=.data hook branch.bin
$ndk/objcopy -O binary --only-section=.text hook shellcode.bin


echo "==============XXD OUTPUT OF BRANCH======================"
echo "==============PUT IT AT 0x2A0009D0 =========================="
xxd branch.bin



echo "==============XXD OUTPUT OF Shellcode======================"
echo "==============PUT IT AT 0x2A0009E4 =========================="
xxd shellcode.bin

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ ./commands.sh
==============XXD OUTPUT OF BRANCH======================
==============PUT IT AT 0x2A0009D0 ==========================
00000000: 0f00 00ea                                ....
==============XXD OUTPUT OF Shellcode======================
==============PUT IT AT 0x2A0009E4 ==========================
00000000: 0600 2de9 0400 2de5 0870 a0e3 0110 a0e3  ..-...-..p......
00000010: 3000 8fe2 0000 00ef 0400 2de5 0470 a0e3  0.........-..p..
00000020: 0420 a0e3 0410 8de2 0000 00ef 0400 9de4  . ..............
00000030: 0670 a0e3 0000 00ef 0400 9de4 0600 bde8  .p..............
00000040: 0088 bde8 ddff ffea 616e 7377 6572 0000  ........answer..

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now its time to patch our program. We are going to input all the above bytes at their respective addresses.

Open a.out using IDA.

Press the hotkey, g, which opens up the Jump to Address prompt.
image

Put the address 0x000009D0 or 9d0 for short, and it will take you to the address where we want to put our branch.bin.

image

image

Click on Edit > Patch program > Change Byte.

image

The xxd output suggested us to patch the bytes to 0F 00 00 EA . But it seemed like it did not hit the shellcode location properly. I adjusted it slightly to 03 00 00 EA and it worked, as you can see from the image above. It points to the some_space function directly.

Next, go to the some_space function and patched the bytes to the xxd output of shellcode.bin.

image

Once done, we are going to apply the patches to the file.
image

Next, we will push the patched program to our android device.

──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ adb push a.out /data/local/tmp
a.out: 1 file pushed. 0.2 MB/s (44552 bytes in 0.185s)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

I will then launch a.out

root@hammerhead:/data/local/tmp # chmod +x a.out                                                                 
root@hammerhead:/data/local/tmp # ./a.out                                                                            
Enter number:      
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

a.out will have now picked a number and store it in our file answer.

From my host , i will use adb to cat out the file..

──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ adb shell "su -c cat /data/local/tmp/answer" > answer

┌──(razali㉿razali)-[~/…/Ivy/AndroidVulnResearch/ctf/inlineFunctionHooking]
└─$ xxd answer                                           
00000000: 807f 6cfc    
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Great, now this is probably a signed integer in little-endian format. I went online to convert it.

The website I went to was here.

image

Then I got the flag.

root@hammerhead:/data/local/tmp # ./a.out                                                                            
Enter number: 4234968960                                                                                             
You did it!
The flag is: "peter_pan"
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Discussion (0)

Forem Open with the Forem app