Merge sort is a divide and conquer algorithm used to sort a list of elements. The algorithm starts by dividing the unsorted list into n sublists, each containing one element. The sublists are then merged in a manner that results in a sorted list. The merging process involves comparing the elements of the sublists and arranging them in the correct order. The time complexity of merge sort is O(n log n), making it an efficient sorting algorithm for large lists.

Optimize sorting with concurrent Merge Sort using channels and goroutines in Go.

```
func Mergech(left chan int, right chan int, c chan int) {
defer close(c)
val, ok := <-left
val2, ok2 := <-right
for ok && ok2 {
if val < val2 {
c <- val
val, ok = <-left
} else {
c <- val2
val2, ok2 = <-right
}
}
for ok {
c <- val
val, ok = <-left
}
for ok2 {
c <- val2
val2, ok2 = <-right
}
}
func MergeSort(arr []int, ch chan int) {
if len(arr) < 2 {
ch <- arr[0]
defer close(ch)
return
}
left := make(chan int)
right := make(chan int)
go MergeSort(arr[len(arr)/2:], left)
go MergeSort(arr[:len(arr)/2], right)
go Mergech(left, right, ch)
}
func main() {
a := []int{5,4,3,2,1}
c := make(chan int)
var wg sync.WaitGroup
wg.Add(1)
go func() {
defer wg.Done()
mergeSort(a, c)
}()
wg.Wait()
var s []int
for v := range c {
s = append(s, v)
}
fmt.Println(s)
}
```

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