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How to deploy SSL Certificate [nginx]

t410 profile image Tayyib Cankat ・4 min read

So you want to install/deploy an SSL Certificate to your website? Great! In this post, you can see how to do so with simple steps with 2 options.

Option 1: Use Certbot (Easy one)

You can see the instructions based on your setup here
https://certbot.eff.org/instructions

Option 2: Manuel Setup (A little bit hard one)

I will assume you are using a UNIX based system (Linux, macOS, etc.)

Requirements

  • A live website
  • SSH access to your server
  • nginx server running in your server
  • SSL Certificate

Step 1: Connect to your server with SSH

Using the i flag lets us pass the path of the identity file to access the remote server

You can connect to your server
ssh -i path_to_pem_file username@server_ip

In my case
ssh -i ~/.ssh/pem_file ubuntu@my_server_ip

Step 2: Copy SSL files to your server using SCP

SCP command will help us copy from one computer to another using SSH protocol. We need to copy the crt and the key file to the remote server.
Notice the i flag here. It does the same job

scp filename remote_username@server_ip:/home/user
user at the end of the line here represents the folder of the user. This is ubuntu in my case. You can change the path whatever you want if remote_username has access to those paths.

Step 3: Configure nginx

We have copied the crt and the key to the remote server. Great! Now we need to configure nginx to listen 443 (HTTPS).

First I suggest you move the crt and key files (In the remote server of course) to a different location other than your /home/user folder. You can move them into /etc/ssl/. But you will need sudo access to do that operation since accessing system paths require to have it.

  • Go into the path your files are located in. I am assuming yours are in /home/user.

cd /home/user
Again, user here is the username in the remote server. This is ubuntu in my case.

By the way, you may already in the correct location. You can see the current location you are in by using pwd command.

  • Move the files to /etc/ssl
    We need sudo access to do this operation
    sudo mv filename /etc/ssl

  • Go into nginx folder
    cd /etc/nginx

  • Edit the nginx.conf file using a text editor
    You can use nano for that.
    We need sudo access for this operation too.
    sudo nano nginx.conf

Now you are looking at the content of nginx.conf.
Look down a little bit and you will see this block

##
# SSL Settings
##

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Notice the # sign. Those are for commenting out the lines.

Just below that block, you need to tell nginx where our crt and key files are located.

##
# SSL Settings
##

ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/ssl-bundle.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/ssl.key;
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My files are named ssl-bundle.crt and ssl.key. If you have different filenames you need to change them of course.

You can go ahead and close nano by hitting ctrl+X. It will ask you Save modified buffer? which you can answer it by hitting Y for yes or X for no. Or you can hit ctrl+C to cancel the operation.

We need to hit Y for nano to save the file.

Step 4: Restarting nginx

Now we need to restart nginx to see if it gives any error. Again, sudo access...
sudo service nginx restart

If you see nothing happens, that's great. But if you see lines like this

Job for nginx.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
See "systemctl status nginx.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.
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it means we made something wrong.

We can see what's wrong with nginx by typing this in the console
sudo nginx -t

Which may tell us some info like this

nginx: [emerg] cannot load certificate key "/etc/ssl/ssl.keya": BIO_new_file() failed (SSL: error:02001002:system library:fopen:No such file or directory:fopen('/etc/ssl/ssl.keya','r') error:2006D080:BIO routines:BIO_new_file:no such file)
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test failed
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From the info I understand that I made a typo. I typed ssl.keya instead of typing ssl.key. Fixing the typo and restarting nginx fixes the problem.

Step 5: Making nginx to listen to 443 for your site

This is the final step. We need to change the port that nginx listens to from 80 to 443.

There is a folder in the nginx folder which is named sites-available which you should already know because I am assuming you have an already live website. Maybe I need to create a tutorial named How to create and deploy a website.

  • Go into sites-available folder We are currently in /etc/nginx. If you are not you can use this command cd /etc/nginx. Now we can use cd sites-available.

There should be a file for your website. Let's call it mysite

We need to configure the file by using nano again.

  • Edit the file

sudo nano mysite
There is a block like this. You can tell that nginx is listening port 80 (HTTP) for your site. We need to change that into 443 (HTTPS).

server {
    listen 80;
...
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Changing the block above to below is what we desire.

server {
    listen 443 ssl;
...
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And we can exit the editor by hitting ctrl+X and then Y.

Step 6: We need to restart nginx

sudo service nginx restart
If you don't see any errors then you are good to go!

Step 7: Check your site

Now you can check your site if the certificate is correctly installed or not. And let me know in the comments if you have any issues.

Some Notes

  • The console commands were used in Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-1028-aws x86_64) in AWS EC2. Yours may be different. So maybe some commands will be different too.
  • Typing the paths of the crt and the key files paths directly into the nginx.conf file allows you to have only 1 domain. If you have a wildcard SSL Certificate you still have 1 domain but you can have multiple subdomains. So if you want to have more than 1 domain you can define the certificate paths in the respective files under sites-available folder. Not in global nginx.conf file.
  • If I made any typos or did not use best case usages please let me know so I can update this document.

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