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Generic bubble sort in C# .NET

Niels Swimberghe
Belgian Full Stack Developer solving problems and delivering value to customers using .NET technologies for back-end systems, and modern JavaScript technologies for the front-end.
Originally published at on ・2 min read

Early this year, I decided to brush up on my algorithms and data structure knowledge. I took these great two courses (1, 2) on PluralSight by Robert Horvick.

To practice what I learned in this course, I decided to create generic versions of the different algorithms and data structures.

What do I mean by generic versions? These types of courses always use integers or strings to demonstrate the algorithms. Instead of using those primitive data types, I'm reimplementing the algorithms and data structures using C#'s generic type parameters.

Here's a console application with a generic method BubbleSort to perform a bubble sort on an enumerable:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

class Program
    static void Main(string[] args)
        var randomNumbers = new int[] { 5, 4, 5, 7, 6, 9, 4, 1, 1, 3, 4, 50, 56, 41 };
        var sortedNumbers = BubbleSort(randomNumbers);

    private static IEnumerable<T> BubbleSort<T>(IEnumerable<T> list) where T : IComparable
        T[] sortedList = list.ToArray();
        int listLength = sortedList.Length;
        while (true)
            bool performedSwap = false;
            for (int currentItemIndex = 1; currentItemIndex < listLength; currentItemIndex++)
                int previousItemIndex = currentItemIndex - 1;
                T previousItem = sortedList[previousItemIndex];
                T currentItem = sortedList[currentItemIndex];
                var comparison = previousItem.CompareTo(currentItem);
                if (comparison > 0)
                    sortedList[previousItemIndex] = currentItem;
                    sortedList[currentItemIndex] = previousItem;
                    performedSwap = true;

            if (!performedSwap)

        return sortedList;

    private static void PrintList<T>(IEnumerable<T> list)
        foreach (var item in list)
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By using a generic type parameter with the constraint that the type has to implement the IComparable interface, you can perform the bubble sort algorithm without knowing the exact type you are working with.

If you want to understand the logic behind the bubble sort algorithm, I recommend checking out the courses mentioned earlier. There's also a lot of other great resources out there online!

Disclaimer: This code works, but is only developed for the sake of practice. Use at your own risk or just use a sorting library. If you see some room for improvement, there most likely is, I'm all ears~

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