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Flamegraphs part 1

As a developer/sysadmin you can create flamegraphs to to create visualizations of system performance data recorded with the perf tool. This perf output shows a stack trace followed by a count, for a total of #N number of samples

git clone the flamegraph scripts:

cd /home/ubuntu
git clone

Sampling a go programme which downloads an linuxmint iso

package main
import (

func check(e error) {
    if e != nil {

func main() {
    d1 := []byte("helo world\n")
    for i := 0; i < 10000; i++ {
        resp, err := http.Get("")
        //body, err := io.ReadAll(resp.Body)
        defer resp.Body.Close()
        file, err := os.Create("/tmp/hello.iso")
        size, err := io.Copy(file, resp.Body)
        defer file.Close()
        fmt.Printf("downloaded %s with size %d", file, size)
        err = os.WriteFile("/tmp/check.txt", d1, 0644)
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compile/build the main.go and run it ./main
Get the process id of main e.g ps aux | grep main

perf record -a -F 99 -g -p 1464 -- sleep 20
Running above command creates a file

perf script > perf.script //it will by default read from current working directory and redirects stdout to a file perf.script(ascii file)
This command reads the input file and displays the trace recorded.

Creating flame graph:-

./FlameGraph/ perf.script  | ./FlameGraph/ > flame1006.svg
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Download and view flame1006.svg in browser

flamegraph for pid 1464

Here we can observe that io.copybuffer function is using most cpu time (io.copy source)
looking further net.(*netFD).Read is the function call using most cpu time. This net.(*netFD).Read implements func (*IPConn) Read
Conn is a generic stream-oriented network connection.
this function reads data from the connection. This func
we also see ksys_read() is called. This function is responsible for retrieving the struct fd that corresponds with the file descriptor passed in by the user. The struct fd structure contains the struct file_operations structure within it.

Image description
sock_read_iter is fired when receiving a message on a socket
By looking at the graph we can conclude that the cpu usage by main programme is spent mostly on reading data from the connection.

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