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Web Development fundamentals: A Comprehensive Guide for Beginners

What is Web Development?

This is an important role in the technology world as it involves website creation, building and maintenance. It is the practice of how websites are designed, how it works and the tools needed to make them function. It entails creating a website for usage on the internet from scratch.

Categories of Web Development

Web development can be categorized into two main categories which are as follows;

  • Front-end development

  • Back-end development

1). Front-end Development

It involves the fundamentals of bringing a website to life. It deals with the look of a website, how it's meant to be, and what the users are supposed to see when they first interact with the website.

Technologies used for Front-end Development

HTML: it is also known as the hypertext markup language. It is not a programming language rather it’s a markup language used to create the basic structure for a website. It dictates what is to be seen on the user's screen and also gives arrangement to specific elements such as paragraphs, images and lists.

It is known as the baby steps taken by newbies in front-end development because it is very easy to learn and comprehend. It is an important toolkit for web developers as it is the skeleton of every website created. It is a must for first-time programmers in the front development section yet it’s not a difficult hurdle to cross because of its accessibility and also gives the best start for newbies in this field.

CSS: it is also known as cascading style sheets. It is a language that beautifies a website. It makes it attractive to the user. it gives a better beautification to the HTML elements and it defines how the HTML is being shown on the user’s device. Having a deep knowledge of CSS allows you to give your website the best taste of display. Through CSS you can change a lot of things such as colors, font, and web page layout and also add other nice effects to the website if you need be. Web developers use both CSS and HTML to create stylish and awesome web pages that look appealing to the users. It is quite simple to learn and understand yet broad in content. Acquiring knowledge in CSS is important to people who are looking forward to building very awesome, responsive and eye-catching websites

JavaScript: it is a client-side language. This is a programming language used for web development, applications and many more. This programming language is widely used and this has made it gain immense popularity globally. Learning JavaScript is important for people who desire to become front-end developers.

JavaScript is used with HTML and CSS to build responsive websites. It is widely used because of its versatility in all sections of web development. It allows web developers to have full access to the functionality of a website.

Bootstrap: it is an open source software that contains already existing design templates that can be re-modified by the user to their preferred

Front-end Libraries and Framework

1). HTML

2). CSS


  • Bootstrap

  • Tailwind CSS

3). Javascript


  • Angular.js

  • Veu.js

  • React

2). Back-end Development

It is one of the most important sections of web development. It includes working on the server side of a website. It deals with data arrangement and storage. In this aspect, the users are unaware of the interaction when they are on a website.

Technologies used for Back-end Development

There are many back-end technologies, below are some of the most popular ones;

1). Python: this is a programming language used for website creation and software development, machine learning, artificial intelligence etc. it is also an indentation language and one of the most popular languages. It is beginner-friendly due to its simplicity, flexibility and versatility in the technology world.

2). Php: it is a language used for web development, especially server-side technologies.

3). Java: it’s a programming language used across all variations of technology such as web development, software creation as well as applications and data using applications.

4). Node.js: it’s a javascript framework used for web development and applications. It helps web developers run codes and scripts in JavaScript on web servers to build responsive web pages.

5). Ruby: this programming language serves a lot of purposes in the programming world such as creating applications for desktops, web crawling, creating web servers, etc.

6). C#: this programming language is also one of the top dogs because of its versatility. It is widely used as well to create applications for both mobile and desktop, build games and software, website creations and many more.


There are other back-end programming languages that were not mentioned above but this doesn’t downplay their existence as they are unique and awesome in their own ways. These languages include C++, kotlin, scala, Perl, Go, etc.

Back-end Libraries, Frameworks and Databases

1). Php


  • Laravel

2). Java


  • Spring

  • Hibernate

3). Node.js


  • Express.js

4). Python


  • Django

  • Flask

5). Ruby


  • Ruby on nails

6). C#


  • NET

Databases used for Back-end Development

  • Nosql

  • Mysql

  • Sql

  • Postgresql

Important Notes to Define your Path in any of these Field's

Have a well defined reason: web development can be a little handy and that why you create a well-structured plan so as to help you achieve your goals.
Do not limit yourself to tutorials alone: Watching tutorials won’t make the path smooth, you have get your hands dirty by practilising what you have learnt.
Learning never stops: The field keeps evolving which means what you know now might be of less importance in years to come. So you have to move with the trend to remain relevant in any of these fields.
Build projects and create a portfolio: This gives opportunity to showcase yourself to employers during job search. The world needs to see what you can build.


Web development might seem a bit complex but putting the hard work and consistency makes the difference. Continue the drive and never give up, the end result is always massive. I wish you good luck in your tech journey.

Top comments (2)

anitaolsen profile image
Anita Olsen

A well written post! Thank you so much for writing this for us!

seunamos profile image

Thank you so much. i really appreciate a lot.