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Seth Michael Larson
Seth Michael Larson

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urllib3 in 2020

This is a cross-post from my blog Python ♥ HTTP. If you enjoy my content and want it sooner you can follow me via RSS.

2019 was a transformative year for urllib3 and I'm hoping to keep up the pace with Python's most used HTTP client. Here are a list of ideas, some easier achieved than others, that would be great to ship this year!

Acquire Funding for Larger Projects

We're excited to be working with Tidelift for another year as one of the original lifted Python projects.
They've enabled us to provide a comprehensive security disclosure workflow and help me and another maintainer to "keep the lights on" so to speak for the project.

However for some of the larger goals mentioned in this post we'll likely require dedicated developer-hours to achieve. In 2019 ~78% of urllib3's $23,580 in funding came from grants. What urllib3 was able to achieve with the grants has increased the security of the project and benefited millions of people, your generous organization could help us do the same in 2020!

If your organization benefits from urllib3 being secure, maintained, and performant, and maintained please consider contacting me to discuss a grant opportunity or subscribing to Tidelift to keep urllib3 and many more Python projects secure and maintained.

Mentor New Contributors

Python's HTTP stack has seen a surge of activity and will need even more helping hands to accomplish our goals and keep Python on the bleeding edge in the HTTP space and keep our dependable existing libraries up-to-date.

If you're looking to get started in Python Open Source and have an interest in making high-impact contributions, learn a lot about networking, or bolster your resume reach out to me.

Use Operating System Trust Stores

Python's HTTP clients all rely on a trust store named certifi which is the Mozilla CA Certificate Store, packaged and released on PyPI. This works well for the Internet at large as it's the same CA certificate store that powers Firefox and curl. However many organizations and IT machine configurations only ensure that the operating system CA bundle is up to date and having certifi be on separate means organizations can't control the safety of their users the same way that they control safety of browsers and other tools.

We'd also want this work to be usable by other projects in the Python ecosystem as this is an important feature for any library that uses TLS.

oscrypto.trust_list in particular looks like a promising start.

TLS 1.2+ by Default

Thanks to the security trail-blazing of many organizations TLS 1.2 is becoming the new minimum security level for the Internet. CDNs and cloud services mean almost all services deployed there use TLS 1.2+ whether their users know it or not by taking configuration of TLS termination away from users.

Browsers are also doing their part by deprecating and eventually removing TLS 1.0 and 1.1 from future versions. Firefox, Edge, Safari, and Chrome have all committed to removing TLS <1.2 in 2020.

This means 2020 is a great time for us to also push the better-security-by-force envelope. :)

Setting TLS 1.2+ means that we'll be secure against TLS downgrade attacks or if a vulnerability is found in TLS 1.0 or 1.1 our users will already be protected. It also means that we can restrict our default cipher suites to rock-solid secure ones instead of ones that are there only to be compatible with older TLS versions.

Even with all you'll still be able to use TLS 1.0 or 1.1 if you specify those versions manually via ssl_version in the case you have to connect to an older server.

Drop Support for Python <2.7.9

Python 2.7.9 is the first Python version that supported ssl.SSLContext() objects. Currently urllib3 supports all Python 2.7 versions but maintains a large chunk of code that allows us to work with Python versions that don't have proper SSLContext objects. This means that we're forced to do hostname verification ourselves rather than rely on OpenSSL's own implementation of certificate verification.

We'll continue to support Python interpreters that don't have a compiled ssl module, however HTTPS connections won't be possible as is the case today.

We will also continue to in general support Python 2.7 for the forseeable future and won't consider removing support via a breaking change until Pip and other upstream projects also drop support.

For some data on what percentage of downloads would be effected I've created a small data table. The number of downloads effected by the change would be ~4%.

Add Support for Zstandard

Zstandard defined in RFC 8478 is looking to be a great replacement for the long-dominant gzip as a content encoding. With both great compression ratios and quick parallelizable CPU usage I'm guessing this technology will soon take the Internet by storm, especially at the edge / CDN layer.

When Zstandard is standardized and accepted it'd be great to already have the feature in place to immediately start giving our users the new performance benefits.

Switch from Travis + AppVeyor to GitHub Actions

The number of Python versions and configurations that urllib3 supports is quite large, testing against Linux, macOS, and Windows to ensure we're compatible with all major OS flavors. With Travis dropping the default concurrency level to 3 for OSS projects and AppVeyor continuing to support only 1 concurrent job we're feeling cornered into long CI durations.

Fortunately we've been experiencing success with GitHub Actions as a CI platform in other projects with the 20 concurrent jobs as well as great flexibility and access to all platforms from one service and would like to switch wholesale to GA from Travis and AppVeyor.

Top comments (3)

rhymes profile image

Hi Seth, thanks a lot for the updates!

urllib3 is an amazing tool and I'm glad so many "higher level" HTTP clients are not trying to reinvent the wheel but sit on top of it, as HTTP 1/2/3 are complicated protocols :D

Great that you default to TLS 1.2, I see many browsers are nuking TLS 1.0 and 1.1 as well.

I definitely didn't know about the existence of Zstandard, very interesting.

I have a question: do you and the team have plans to start looking into QUIC/HTTP3 or is it too early to consider?

sethmlarson profile image
Seth Michael Larson

I've worked with Jeremy Laine and helped shape the aioquic library into a state that can be used for sync and async libraries.

For urllib3 we'll not be moving off of httplib's HTTP parser so that makes switching to another protocol above HTTP/1.1 pretty much impossible. Who knows what the future holds though! :)

Thanks for your interest.

rhymes profile image

Didn't know about aioquic, definitely interesting.

Thanks for the reply and keep up the great work!