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    It is a testing technique in which the input parameters of the software are tested. From the word boundaries we know that it deals with certain range of input parameters such that it has certain limitations.

    Boundary value analysis has three varieties of giving test case analysis.


Giving exactly the valuable input, which is applicable, for example age limit of amusement park entry is between 18 to 40, in this case we can test the software by entering,  
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any age within the limits (18-40) or (maximum limit -1) or (minimum limit+1) or exactly 18 or 40

This valid input testing is on boundary analysis.


 Giving more than the limit is said to be overflow test case, for example in that same textbox from above example we try to give
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41 or 42 (maximum limit +1 or maximum limit +2)

and checking whether the error message is shown to the user or not, is said to be overflow analysis.


On giving data less than the actual limit, 
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giving 17 or 16 (minimum limit-1 or minimum limit-2)

that is said to be underflow testcase in such cases error message to be displayed to the user.


It is the testing in which a variety of conditions and their interrelationships are checked.

 For example, username field and passcode field will have different combinations once a user has entered wrong id and wrong passcode or any one of this field is correct and another one is wrong in that cases the user is unable to login because of wrong combinations.
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only the user can login if the combination is exact match.


Use case design is simple procedure comes under functional testing it defines the actions done by the user on the software and how the software responses to user for every click or input given from start to end of the entire process.

For example, ATM machine it starts with card insertion into the machine aft identifying the account holder asks for service that is required then according to it gets the data and process it once user gives the PIN number, such that from starting to ending the flow is checked in use case testing.


The expansion of LCSAJ is Linear Code Sequence and Jump it is a white box technique testing methodology it is also called as code coverage analysis where we can find which part of code is executed with given test case and we can design new test cases to make the remaining code to be executed with other possible prospectives.

   Also checking the software starts at exact starting of code or at any branch also ends at end of the code or at branch. And which is essential for identifying potential defects and vulnerabilities in the code.
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