## DEV Community

Piotr Kulpinski

Posted on • Originally published at kulpinski.dev

# Supercharge Your Number Inputs with Custom Step Sizes

The `<input type="number">` element provides a convenient way to handle numeric input in web forms. You can set bounds with the `min` and `max` attributes, and users can press the up and down arrow keys to increment or decrement the value by the specified `step` size. However, what if you want to allow users to adjust the value using different step sizes?

By default, the `step` attribute not only determines the increment/decrement amount but also clips the value to the nearest multiple of the step. For example, if you have an input with a value of 5 and a step of 10, pressing the up arrow key will set the value to 10 (the nearest multiple of the step) instead of 15 (5 + 10).

## How to build a better number input

In this article, we'll explore how to enhance the functionality of number inputs to support custom step sizes. We'll implement the following features:

• `↑/↓` – adjusts the value by the specified `step` size (1 if step is not specified).
• `Shift`+`↑/↓` – adjusts the value by step multiplied by 10.
• `Alt`+`↑/↓` – adjusts the value by step divided by 10.
• `Ctrl/Cmd`+`↑/↓` – adjusts the value by step multiplied by 100.
• If the input is empty, the value is calculated based on the `min` attribute (0 if `min` is not specified).

Let's dive into the implementation!

## Helper Functions

First, let's define some utility functions that we'll use throughout the implementation.

``````const parseNumericValue = (value?: string | number | null) => {
if (value === undefined || value === null) return undefined
const parsed = Number.parseFloat(value.toString())

return Number.isNaN(parsed) ? undefined : parsed
}
``````

The `parseNumericValue` function takes a value (which can be a string, number, or null) and parses it as a floating-point number. If the value is `undefined` or `null`, it returns `undefined`. If the parsing fails, it also returns `undefined`.

This function will be useful for parsing the `min`, `max`, `step`, and current value of the input elements.

``````const preciseRound = (value: number, decimals = 2) => {
const factor = Math.pow(10, decimals)

return Math.round((value + Number.EPSILON) * factor) / factor
}
``````

The `preciseRound` function rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places. It uses the `Number.EPSILON` constant to handle floating-point precision issues.

``````const keepNumberInRange = (value: number, min?: number, max?: number) => {
if (min !== undefined && max !== undefined) {
return Math.min(Math.max(value, min), max)
}
if (min !== undefined) {
return Math.max(value, min)
}
if (max !== undefined) {
return Math.min(value, max)
}

return value
}
``````

The `keepNumberInRange` function ensures that a given number stays within the specified `min` and `max` bounds. I like to use reusable utility functions like this to keep the code clean and maintainable.

## Implementing the Key Up Handler

Here's the main event handler function that will be called when the user presses the up or down arrow keys on a number input:

``````import { KeyboardEvent } from "react"

const handleKeyUp = (e: KeyboardEvent<HTMLInputElement>) => {
if (!["ArrowUp", "ArrowDown"].includes(e.key)) {
return
}

const target = e.currentTarget
const direction = e.key === "ArrowUp" ? 1 : -1
const min = parseNumericValue(target.getAttribute("min"))
const max = parseNumericValue(target.getAttribute("max"))
const step = parseNumericValue(target.getAttribute("step")) || 1
const value = parseNumericValue(target.value) || min || 0
const increment = step * (e.metaKey ? 100 : e.shiftKey ? 10 : e.altKey ? 1 / 10 : 1)

const newValue = preciseRound(value + direction * Math.max(increment, 0.1), 2)

if (newValue !== value) {
target.value = keepNumberInRange(newValue, min, max)
e.preventDefault()
}
}

// Usage: <input type="number" onKeyUp={handleKeyUp} />
``````

Let's break down the code:

1. We check if the pressed key is either "ArrowUp" or "ArrowDown". If not, we return early.
2. We get the current target input element and determine the direction based on the pressed key (+1 for "ArrowUp", -1 for "ArrowDown").
3. We parse the `min`, `max`, and `step` attributes of the input element using the `parseNumericValue` utility function.
4. We parse the current value of the input using `parseNumericValue` or fallback to the `min` value or 0 if the input is empty.
5. We calculate the increment based on the modifier keys: Ctrl/Cmd multiplies the step by 100, Shift multiplies it by 10, Alt divides it by 10, and the default is 1.
6. We calculate the new value by adding the product of the direction and the increment to the current value, using the `preciseRound` utility function to handle floating-point precision.
7. If the new value is different from the current value, we update the input value using the `setInputValue` function, ensuring it stays within the specified `min` and `max` range.
8. Finally, we call `e.preventDefault()` to prevent the default browser behavior.

With this implementation, your number inputs will have the desired supercharged behavior, allowing users to quickly adjust values using different step sizes based on the modifier keys they press.

You can easily integrate this code into your project by attaching the `handleKeyUp` event handler to your number input elements.

Happy coding!