In this tutorial, we'll cover how to build a command line game for playing Blackjack using Python! You'll get to build the game from start to finish, and when you're done, you'll have a fully functioning game to play from the command line.
While building the game, we'll explore a few handy Python concepts, such as object-oriented programming using classes and how to manage a game loop. This tutorial is also extracted from an entire course on building a Blackjack game using a graphical user environment (GUI), which you can check out here if you're interested.
Sound fun? Let's do it!
Blackjack is a gambling game that requires only a deck of cards. The goal of the game is to get as close as possible to a hand worth 21 points as the dealer flips over your cards – but go over and you're out!
In Blackjack, numbered cards (2 through 10) are worth their face value, picture cards (jack, queen, and king) are worth 10, and an ace is worth either 1 or 11 depending on your other cards. To start a hand, players place their bets and are dealt two cards face up. They can choose to "hit" (receive another card) or "stick" (stay with their current hand) as they attempt to get as close as possible to 21. If they chose to hit and go over 21, they "bust" and lose the hand (and the money they bet!).
Players face off against the dealer, who starts with one card face down and one face up. When all players have chosen to stick or have busted, the dealer then flips over their hidden card and either hits or sticks, their goal being to get a higher hand than any of the players.
If the dealer busts, they pay out the value of each player's wager to that player, provided that the player hasn't already busted. They also need to pay out if they don't get a higher hand than a player.
There are a lot of other rules (of course!) that you can read up on if you're interested, but the above is everything you need to know to build this game.
Okay, let's get started with some coding!
If you don't already have Python installed on your computer, you'll need to do so based on the instructions here. If you'd rather avoid that, you can grab an online coding sandbox with Python and other necessary libraries pre-installed here (sign in required).
Before we begin coding our blackjack game, it's important we cover how we'll use object-oriented programming, since we will need to utilize classes for our game.
We will begin by defining the classes that will be used in order to separate out different aspects of the game of blackjack. We will model three of the components of the game:
Card: A basic playing card. The card belongs to a suit (hearts ♥, diamonds ♦, spades ♠, or clubs ♣) and is worth a certain value.
Deck: A collection of cards. The deck shrinks as cards are drawn and contains 52 unique cards.
Hand: Each player's assigned cards. A hand is what defines each player's score and thus who wins.
Let's begin with the simplest concept: the
Card class will be the first class we define, as both of our other classes will need to use it. Create a Python file called blackjack.py, then add the following code:
import random class Card: def __init__(self, suit, value): self.suit = suit self.value = value def __repr__(self): return " of ".join((self.value, self.suit))
The only import we will need for our game is the
random module. This will allow us to shuffle our virtual deck of cards at the beginning of every game.
Our first class will be one representing the playing cards. Each card will have a suit (hearts, diamonds, spades, and clubs) and a value (ace through king). We define the
__repr__ function in order to change how the card is displayed when we call
King of Spades. That's all we need to do for a
Next up, we need to create a
Deck of these
Deck will need to contain 52 unique cards and must be able to shuffle itself. It will also need to be able to deal cards and decrease in size as cards are removed. Create the
Deck class in the blackjack.py file using the below code:
class Deck: def __init__(self): self.cards = [Card(s, v) for s in ["Spades", "Clubs", "Hearts", "Diamonds"] for v in ["A", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "J", "Q", "K"]] def shuffle(self): if len(self.cards) > 1: random.shuffle(self.cards) def deal(self): if len(self.cards) > 1: return self.cards.pop(0)
When creating an instance of the
Deck, we simply need to have a collection of every possible card. We achieve this by using a list comprehension containing lists of every suit and value. We pass each combination over to the initialization for our
Card class to create 52 unique
Deck will need to be able to be shuffled so that every game is different. We use the
shuffle function in the
random library to do this for us (how fitting). To avoid any potential errors, we will only shuffle a deck which still has two or more cards in it, since shuffling one or zero cards is pointless.
After shuffling, we will need to deal cards too. We utilize the
pop function of a list (which is the data structure holding our cards) to return the top card and remove it from the deck so that it cannot be dealt again.
That's it for the
Deck class! The final utility class to be created for our game to work is the
Hand. All players have a hand of cards, and each hand is worth a numerical value based on the cards it contains.
Hand class will need to contain cards just like the
Deck class does. It will also be assigned a value by the rules of the game based on which cards it contains. Since the dealer's hand should only display one card, we also keep track of whether the
Hand belongs to the dealer to accommodate this rule.
Start with the below to create the
Hand class in the blackjack.py file:
class Hand: def __init__(self, dealer=False): self.dealer = dealer self.cards =  self.value = 0 def add_card(self, card): self.cards.append(card)
Much like the
Hand will hold its cards as a list of
Card instances. When adding a card to the hand, we simply add the
Card instance to our
Hand class, calculating the currently held
cards value is where the rules of the game come into play the most:
def calculate_value(self): self.value = 0 has_ace = False for card in self.cards: if card.value.isnumeric(): self.value += int(card.value) else: if card.value == "A": has_ace = True self.value += 11 else: self.value += 10 if has_ace and self.value > 21: self.value -= 10 def get_value(self): self.calculate_value() return self.value
You may note that the above code is already indented. This is intentional and done below too! This way, you don't need to perform the indents yourself and can focus on reading the instructions and code instead of chasing down whitespace errors.
In this code, we first initialize the value of the hand to
0 and assume the player does not have an ace (since this is a special case).
Then, we loop through the
Card instances and try to add their value as a number to the player's total, using the following logic:
- If the card's value is numerical, we add its value to the value of this hand (
- If it is not numerical, we check to see whether the card is an ace. If it is, we add
11to the hand's value and set the
- If it is not an ace, we simply add
10to the value of the hand.
Once this is done, we check to see if there was an ace and the increase of
11 points brought the hand's value over
21. If so, we make the ace worth
1 point instead by subtracting
10 from the hand's value.
Now, we need some way for the game to display each hand's cards, so we use a simple function to print each card in the hand, and the value of the player's hand too. The dealer's first card is face down, so we print
def display(self): if self.dealer: print("hidden") print(self.cards) else: for card in self.cards: print(card) print("Value:", self.get_value())
Now that we have all of our underlying data structures written, it's time for the main game loop!
We will define the game's main loop within its
play method, so that to start a game, you will simply need to create an instance of the
Game class and call
.play() on it:
class Game: def __init__(self): pass def play(self): playing = True while playing: self.deck = Deck() self.deck.shuffle() self.player_hand = Hand() self.dealer_hand = Hand(dealer=True) for i in range(2): self.player_hand.add_card(self.deck.deal()) self.dealer_hand.add_card(self.deck.deal()) print("Your hand is:") self.player_hand.display() print() print("Dealer's hand is:") self.dealer_hand.display()
The above code is pretty lengthy, so let's break it down:
- We start off our loop with a Boolean (
playing) which will be used to track whether or not we are still playing the game.
- If we are, we need a shuffled
Handinstances—one for the dealer and one for the player.
- We use the
rangefunction to deal two cards each to the player and the dealer. Our
dealmethod will return a
Cardinstance, which is passed to the
add_cardmethod of our
- Finally, we display the hands to our player. We can use the
displaymethod on our
Handinstances to print this to the screen.
This marks the end of the code that needs to run at the beginning of every new game. Now, we enter a loop that will run until a winner is decided. We again control this with a Boolean (
game_over = False while not game_over: player_has_blackjack, dealer_has_blackjack = self.check_for_blackjack()
Before continuing, we first need to check for blackjack. If either player has been dealt an ace and a picture card, their hand will total
21, so they automatically win. Let's create the method to do this (under the
def check_for_blackjack(self): player = False dealer = False if self.player_hand.get_value() == 21: player = True if self.dealer_hand.get_value() == 21: dealer = True return player, dealer
We need to keep track of which player may have blackjack, so we will keep a Boolean for the player (
player) and the dealer (
Next, go back to the
while not game_over loop inside the
play() method. We need to check whether either hand totals
21, which we will do using two
if statements. If either has a hand value of
21, their Boolean is changed to
If either of the Booleans are
True, then we have a winner, and will print the winner to the screen and
continue, thus breaking us out of the game loop. To accomplish this, add the below directly underneath the
player_has_blackjack, dealer_has_blackjack = self.check_for_blackjack() line of code:
if player_has_blackjack or dealer_has_blackjack: game_over = True self.show_blackjack_results( player_has_blackjack, dealer_has_blackjack) continue
We must once again pause to create the method
show_blackjack_results(), which will print the winner to the screen. We do this by adding the code below underneath the
def show_blackjack_results(self, player_has_blackjack, dealer_has_blackjack): if player_has_blackjack and dealer_has_blackjack: print("Both players have blackjack! Draw!") elif player_has_blackjack: print("You have blackjack! You win!") elif dealer_has_blackjack: print("Dealer has blackjack! Dealer wins!")
If neither player had blackjack, the game loop will continue.
The player can now make a choice—whether or not to add more cards to their hand (hit) or submit their current hand (stick). To do this, add the below to the
choice = input("Please choose [Hit / Stick] ").lower() while choice not in ["h", "s", "hit", "stick"]: choice = input("Please enter 'hit' or 'stick' (or H/S) ").lower()
We use the
input function to collect a choice from the user. This will always return us a string containing the text the user typed into the command line.
Since we have a string, we can cast the user's input to lowercase using the
lower function to avoid having to check combinations of upper case and lower case when parsing their reply.
If their input is not recognized, we will simply keep asking for it again until it is:
if choice in ['hit', 'h']: self.player_hand.add_card(self.deck.deal()) self.player_hand.display()
Should the player choose to hit, they will need to add an extra card to their hand. This is done in the same way as before with the
Since their total has changed, we will now need to check whether they are over the allowed limit of
21. Let's define a method that does this now:
def player_is_over(self): return self.player_hand.get_value() > 21
This method simply checks whether the player's hand value is over
21 and returns the information as a Boolean.
Now, back in the
play method, add the following inside the
if choice in ['hit', 'h'] block:
if self.player_is_over(): print("You have lost!") game_over = True
If the player’s hand has a value over
21, they have lost, so the game loop needs to break and we set
True (indicating that the dealer has won).
Okay, now let's handle when the player decides to stick with their hand. If they do this, it's time for their score to be compared with the dealer's. To do this, add the below aligned with the
if choice in ['hit', 'h'] statement:
else: player_hand_value = self.player_hand.get_value() dealer_hand_value = self.dealer_hand.get_value() print("Final Results") print("Your hand:", player_hand_value) print("Dealer's hand:", dealer_hand_value) if player_hand_value > dealer_hand_value: print("You Win!") elif player_hand_value == dealer_hand_value: print("Tie!") else: print("Dealer Wins!") game_over = True
We use the
else statement here because we have already established that the user's answer was either hit or stick, and we have just checked hit. This means we will only get into this block when the user wants to stick.
The value of both the player's and the dealer's hand are printed to the screen to give the final results. We then compare the values of each hand to see which is higher.
If the player's hand is a higher value than the dealer's, we print
You Win!. If the scores are equal, then we have a tie, so we print
Tie!. Otherwise, the dealer must have a higher hand than the player, so we show
That completes the logic required for a user to play a single game. Now, let's make it possible for them to play another game by adding the following at the end of the
play method, outside of the
again = input("Play Again? [Y/N] ") while again.lower() not in ["y", "n"]: again = input("Please enter Y or N ") if again.lower() == "n": print("Thanks for playing!") playing = False else: game_over = False
We once again use the combination of
lower and a
while loop to ensure our answer is a
n. If the player answers with
n, we thank them for playing and set our
playing Boolean to
False, thus breaking us out of the main game loop and ending the program. If not, they must have answered
y, so we set
False and let our main loop run again. This will take us right back to the top at
self.deck = Deck() to set up a brand new game.
We've completed the game! Now, it's time to run this code. To do this, we simply create an instance of the
Game class at the end of the file and call the
if __name__ == "__main__": game = Game() game.play()
Now we have a game, give it a play. You can start the game by typing
python3 blackjack.py into your command line (or pressing the blue "Run" button, if you're using the sandbox mentioned earlier).
You should see something like the following printed onto your screen:
workspace $ python3 blackjack.py Your hand is: A of Diamonds 5 of Clubs Value: 16 Dealer's hand is: hidden A of Clubs Please choose [Hit / Stick] H A of Diamonds 5 of Clubs 10 of Hearts Value: 16 Please choose [Hit / Stick] H A of Diamonds 5 of Clubs 10 of Hearts 2 of Clubs Value: 18 Please choose [Hit / Stick] S Final Results Your hand: 18 Dealer's hand: 16 You Win! Play Again? [Y/N] N Thanks for playing!
Congrats on working your way through this tutorial! In it, we covered how to build handy concepts like object-oriented programming, game flow design, and even the basics of Blackjack.
Two limitations of this game are that the dealer will never hit and there is no concept of betting. Feel free to add these features yourself if you'd like! Because a dealer is required to hit or stick at certain hand values, you can develop a program that mimic the dealer exactly.
You can also check out the full course behind this tutorial, if you'd like!