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Mykhaylo Ryechkin πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡¦
Mykhaylo Ryechkin πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡¦

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JavaScript Module Ecosystem


If you've done web development for any amount of time, there's a good chance you've had to work with tools like Webpack, Rollup, Browserify and other front-end tooling systems. But do you know why we started using them in the first place, and why they are still part of our everyday workflow?

In this post, we'll take a look at one of the core areas of JavaScript - the module ecosystem - and why tools like the ones mentioned above are required (πŸ₯).


Before we talk about what modules are, let's take a brief look at some JavaScript history, and why modules and their different formats came to be.

For most of its early life, "the web" (ie. browsers) had only one way to load script files, via plain <script> tags:

  <script src="a.js"></script>
  <script src="b.js"></script>
  <script src="c.js"></script>
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This is now what we refer to as "classic" scripts. In classic scripts, all scope is shared (via the global window object). There is also no explicit way to specify dependency between files, so order of <script> tags matters. You need to be careful about the order in which files are imported, and be mindful of subsequent changes in them.

This may not be such a big deal for simple scripts and adding some interactivity to a static page, but nowadays we run entire applications comprised of complex JavaScript - and as you can imagine, with the classic scripts approach things can get really messy, really quickly. There had to be another - better - way of loading JavaScript.

With the advent of Node in 2009, we also needed a way to load and run JavaScript on the server as well. With one key difference, however. In high-latency client environments like the browser, it's faster to send one large file, rather than many small ones. By contrast, in a server environment files are co-located on the same filesystem, and as such can be accessed virtually instantly. Node can load as many individual files as necessary, without any performance implications due to latency.

And this is where the module system and JavaScript tooling come into play.

So what are modules anyway?

Modules are a mechanism for splitting up JavaScript into smaller, manageable logical chunks of code. They are essentially a way to organize, and ship code in JavaScript. Modules let us write code in one file that explicitly depends on (or is a dependency of) code in another file.

When browsers and Node load a JavaScript program, they build a map of all the modules that are used in the project. This process is called module resolution, and the map of these modules and their relationship to each other is often referred to as a module graph. The resolution algorithm itself is different depending on the runtime environment.

Module Formats

There are several different module formats: ES6 Modules (or ESM), CommonJS (or CJS), AMD and UMD are among the ones you're likely to come across.

Why so many?

As mentioned earlier, there are different JavaScript runtime environments to consider. We have the browser with its various implementations (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc), and then the server, with runtimes like Node and Deno. Each has its own different set of concerns, as we saw earlier as well.

That made it tricky to land on a specification. For a long time, there wasn't a single, agreed-upon standard between those environments in terms of how to deal with modules. There were concurrent attempts at solving the problem (even JavaScript standards themselves are async πŸ₯), and what resulted was an emergence of the module formats mentioned above.

Eventually, module format spec was standardized by the TC39 committee, with ESM becoming the de-facto "future-proof" standard going forward. Along with CommonJS, it is the format you are most likely to come across and work with today.

Module Specifiers

Modules are loaded using keywords like import:

import user from './module.js';
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and require:

const user = require('./module');
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These are called module specifiers. They can be either full or relative URL's:

// Full URL
import { greet } from '';

// Relative URL
import { greet } from './module.js';
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They can also be "bare" (ie. without specifying file extensions):

import { greet } from './module';
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NOTE: the bare specifier is not yet supported in browsers as of the writing of this post, and requires tools to interpret the syntax.

Module Scope

The way modules are loaded is different between browsers and server environments (ie. Node).

Browser loads modules as stateful singletons - meaning that the same module will share its state anywhere it's imported in the application, for the duration of that session. A good mental model to help understand this better is:

When you import a module, you're not getting a piece of code that you're running, you get a reference to an object in memory

(shoutout to Sam Selikoff and Ryan Toronto from Frontend First Podcast whose discussion in Episode #100 helped a great deal in understanding these concepts)

In a Node environment, however, modules are loaded as instances. This means that each imported module instance in your app has its own state, not shared with any of the other instances of the same module - so you no longer have a global module state.

Module Exports

By default, everything that is declared inside a module is scoped locally to that module. If you want to make something accessible outside the module (and really, that's the whole point), you need to export it. There are several ways of exporting, and which one to use will depend on the target module format (ie. ESM vs CommonJS), as well as what kind of export you are doing.

In general, ES modules have two types of exports: default and named. You can export any top-level function, class or variable.

When to use which?

That really depends on the intended use and structure of the module. One approach is to export default the main functionality of a module, to denote its main intent. Then any supplemental functionality or data are treated as named exports.

Format: ES6 Modules (ESM)

ESM is the standard established and governed by TC39 committee. It is the modern standard for JavaScript modules going forward, and is supported natively in all major browsers, as well as newer versions of Node (15 and above). For Node 14 and below, ESM can be enabled with the help of 3rd party libraries (eg. esm).

ESM uses .js and .mjs extensions (browser and Node, respectively), and utilizes import keyword for importing, and export for exporting.

When exporting from ESM, you can do either default or named exports:

// module.esm.js

const user = { name: 'Human', location: 'Planet Earth' };

// named exports
export const GREETING = 'Hello';

export function greet(greeting, user) {
  return `${greeting}, ${} from ${user.location}`;

// default export
export default user;
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Importing can be done using default imports:

import user from './module.js';
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or using named imports, where the name of the thing you're importing goes inside curly braces:

import { greet } from './module.js';
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You can also import both default and named at the same time, as well as multiple named imports, using this one-line convention:

// index.js

import user, { greet, GREETING } from './foo.js';

console.log(greet(GREETING, user)); // "Hello, Human from Planet Earth"

console.log(GREETING); // "Hello"
console.log(user); // { name: 'Human', location: 'Planet Earth' }
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Some characteristics and rules of ESM:

  • import's are static and asynchronous (browsers are async in their nature, after all)
  • import's must live at the root level
  • import's also get hoisted, so can be written anywhere in the code
  • import specifier can only accept a string literal (ie. it can't be dynamically generated)

Due to this nature of ESM, code written in it can also be statically analyzed and tree-shaken by tools like Rollup , so that no extra unused JavaScript is included in the bundle.

"Tree-shaking" or what is also known as "dead code elimination" is a process through which tools like Webpack and Rollup do static analysis of your code, and try to determine which modules aren't utilized. Doing this allows these tools to drastically cut down on the overall bundle size, and only include what's actually needed to run your application or library code. ESM is much more compatible with this process.

To load an ESM module in a browser, we need to specify type as "module" in the script tag:

<script type="module" src="/some-module.js"></script>
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When loading in Node, there are several ways to target ESM:

  • Set type field to "module" in the package.json of the project
  • Use the .mjs file extension
  • Using --input-type=module flag via Node CLI

Format: CommonJS (CJS)

CommonJS (or CJS) is a module system that originated in Node. It has been the prevalent format in the Node ecosystem for many years, and is still used in many libraries and tools today.

CJS modules are exported via module.exports, and use the require keyword for importing:

// module.cjs.js

const user = { name: 'Human', location: 'Planet Earth' };

const GREETING = 'Hello';

const greet = (greeting, user) => `${greeting}, ${} from ${user.location}`;

module.exports = { greet, GREETING };

module.exports.default = user;
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Note that the above can also be written this way:

module.exports.greet = greet;
module.exports.GREETING = GREETING;
module.exports.default = user;
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To import CommonJS, use the require keyword :

// index.js

const { default: user, greet, GREETING } = require('./module.js');
console.log(greet(GREETING, user)); // "Hello, Human from Planet Earth"
console.log(GREETING); // "Hello"
console.log(user); // { name: 'Human', location: 'Planet Earth' }
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CommonJS uses .js and .cjs file extensions, and it cannot be loaded directly in a browser. For that exist specific tools that allow us to run CommonJS code in a browser environment, such as Browserify, Rollup and others.

Unlike ES6 Modules which are loaded asynchronously, CommonJS module resolution is synchronous. Remember how we talked about server environments having virtually no latency for module loading? This is why.

Due to this low latency, CJS modules are loaded dynamically, at runtime. The module specifier is a function, which can accept JS expressions, making require dynamic. This allows us to do things like conditional imports:

const { thing } = require(isTrue ? './a.js' : './b.js');
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However, this has certain tradeoffs. For instance, JavaScript tools can't know what's going to be loaded ahead of time. This unfortunately makes CommonJS modules not compatible with tree-shaking. It's much less of a concern on the server - since you're not sending code to the client - and if we remember that the CJS module format originated in Node, then it make sense why this format wouldn't concern itself with that.


With all the differences between the module formats we've seen so far, and the different runtime environment gotchas, it's evident why there is such a strong need for a single, standard module specification going into the future.

Now let us ask a question:

"What happens if you want to use a CommonJS module inside an ES6 module? Or the other way around?"

The short answer is, it depends. Browsers don't support this natively - so we have to yet again rely on our tooling to support this functionality.

Bundlers and transpilers such as Babel, Webpack, Rollup etc. have been doing a decent job of ensuring compatibility between the different module formats and runtimes, however some edge cases and issues still exist today.

We'll take a closer look at some of these interoperability concerns in a future post.

Closing Thoughts

Before wrapping this up, let's consider something for a second. If there are so many issues with interoperability, then why are we still using CommonJS?

The answer to that is not a simple one, unfortunately. First, CommonJS is everywhere. It's still the main format used in Node, and has been for many years (Node only recently started supporting ESM). The NPM ecosystem is huge. And though many popular library authors have been shipping both ESM and CJS compatible code, there are still many packages out there that are exclusively CommonJS. This is especially true for legacy systems, and enterprise code, which may not have the luxury of moving its entire codebase to an entirely different module system.

Second, it's a lengthy process. Lots of large (and popular) codebases and tools still use and heavily rely on it. So while the goal may be to move to a single unified format down the road (ESM), it is not an overnight change, and will take some time for the entire ecosystem to migrate to it.

There are some folks who are eager to help move it forward, though others are against the idea altogether. Both sides present valuable arguments, and the discussions are worth checking out if you're interested in the topic.

In a future post, we'll take a look at how to ship your library code in both ESM and CommonJS using Rollup.

Until next time!

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