DEV Community

Cover image for OOP in Python
Md Shahriyar Al Mustakim Mitul
Md Shahriyar Al Mustakim Mitul

Posted on • Updated on

OOP in Python

Requirement: List, Dictionary , Function etc

OOP post shared by Dev Community

Twiter post by Dev.to

So, OOP is basically programming with Object
So, What is Object? To know this, you have to know what is Class?
Okay , do you know about string? Let's see what are there in the directory of string

print(dir(str))
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getitem__', '__getnewargs__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__init_subclass__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mod__', '__mul__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__rmod__', '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'capitalize', 'casefold', 'center', 'count', 'encode', 'endswith', 'expandtabs', 'find', 'format', 'format_map', 'index', 'isalnum', 'isalpha', 'isascii', 'isdecimal', 'isdigit', 'isidentifier', 'islower', 'isnumeric', 'isprintable', 'isspace', 'istitle', 'isupper', 'join', 'ljust', 'lower', 'lstrip', 'maketrans', 'partition', 'removeprefix', 'removesuffix', 'replace', 'rfind', 'rindex', 'rjust', 'rpartition', 'rsplit', 'rstrip', 'split', 'splitlines', 'startswith', 'strip', 'swapcase', 'title', 'translate', 'upper', 'zfill']

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

so, what are they? There are methods under "str" class
for example: upper is a method and doc is a private method
and method is mainly function within a class . Nothing else!

So , you have a little knowledge of "class" now

Let's create a class named example :

class example:
    print("Congratulations! you have created your first class")

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Congratulations! you have created your first class
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

now we will create method within the class and remember that, while you create the method, you will have to give "self" parameter

class example:
    def hello_world(self):
        print("Created 1st method")
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

now the question is that what is self? this self is basically to differ from other class . But to know about this, you need to know what is object. You may consider object/instance as a child of a class. Let's create a class:

class example1:
    def hello_world(self):
        print("Created 1st method")


object=example1()# created an object
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

To use the class, you just need to create an object with the class name and you can then use all the method and variable within the class. Let's create an object and use it.

class example1:
      def hello_world(self):
          print("Hello world")

      def details(self):
          print("We are learning OOP")

object1=example1()
object1.details()#using details method

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

We are learning OOP
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Here we have created an object and used details method of the class through the object

Now let's assume , you want to give some input and then work depending on those input, you can use init method for that . Basically init method is made to do must things of a class

class example1:
    def __init__(self):
        print("Hey! used the __init__ method")

    def hello_world(self):
          print("Hello world")

    def details(self):
          print("We are learning OOP")

object1=example1()


Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Hey! used the __init__ method
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

So, look here we created an object but did not call any method , still this is printed . The reason is that, we have added that under init . so these sort of things are done using init
.

Now, let's take some input while creating an object and use them .

class example1:
    def __init__(self,name, country):

        self.variable_1=name
        self.variable_2=country
        print(self.variable_1)
        print(self.variable_2)

object1=example1("Mitul", 'Bangladesh')
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

here, while creating the object we are taking 2 values. Name and country name. and then look def init(self,name, country) here, we have set 3 parameter. self,name and country . Self is a must but other 2 are taken for 2 input we will take while creating an object.

class example1:
    def __init__(self,name, country):

        self.variable_1=name
        self.variable_2=country
        print(self.variable_1)
        print(self.variable_2)
        print("-----------")

object1=example1("Mitul", 'Bangladesh')
object2=example1('Karim', "India")
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now , you can see that we have 2 objects now and we can use as many time as we want providing name and country
Output:

Mitul
Bangladesh
-----------
Karim
India
-----------
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

You can again provide default values for variables within init

class example1:
    def __init__(self,name, country="default"):

        self.variable_1=name
        self.variable_2=country
        print(self.variable_1)
        print(self.variable_2)
        print("-----------")

object1=example1("Mitul")
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Mitul
default
-----------
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Now, let's know more about self using 2 class

#class 1
class Hospital:
    def __init__(self,name):
           self.name=name
           self.d_dict={}
           self.p_dict={}
           self.d_count=0
           self.p_count=0

    def addDoctor(self,var):
        self.d_dict[var.d_id]=[var.d_name,var.d_spe]
        self.d_count+=1


    def getDoctorByID(self,val):
        if val in self.d_dict.keys():
            return f"Doctor's ID:{val}\nName:{self.d_dict[val][0]}\nSpeciality:{self.d_dict[val][1]}"


    def allDoctors(self):
        print("All Doctors")
        print(f"Number of Doctors: {self.d_count}")
        print(self.d_dict)

#class 2
class Doctor:
    def __init__(self,id,occ,name,spe):
        self.d_id=id
        self.d_occ=occ
        self.d_name=name
        self.d_spe=spe



h = Hospital("Evercare")# created an object with hospital name and Hospital class
d1 = Doctor("1d","Doctor", "Samar Kumar", "Neurologist") #created an object with Doctor class and with id, occupation , name , speciality 
h.addDoctor(d1) #used a method of Hospital class . Notice h is not an object under Doctor class but addDoctor is under the class Doctor. So, we are basically using a method called addDoctor with an object not created from his own class

print(h.getDoctorByID("1d"))

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Doctor's ID:1d
Name:Samar Kumar
Speciality:Neurologist
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

So, don't think about the code. Here we created "h" object through Hospital class and "d1" through Doctor class . so we used "getDoctorById" method through the object "h" and here into the code, while we used this:

    def addDoctor(self,var):
        self.d_dict[var.d_id]=[var.d_name,var.d_spe]
        self.d_count+=1
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

if you check the line self.d_dict[var.d_id]=[var.d_name,var.d_spe] here, var refers to object of other class or in a word this is of a different class but self refers here things of only Hospital class. so , self here differs between 2 class .

So, stay cool. Don't need to panic if you don't realize anything.

Let's learn things gradually to master OOP

Public, Protected & Private Variable

Public variable : It can be used outside the class and in other class too

class Car:
    numberOfWheels=4

class Bmw(Car):
    def __init__(self):
        print("Inside the BMW Class",self.numberOfWheels)

car=Car()
print(car.numberOfWheels)#used outside of the class
bmw=Bmw()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

4
Inside the BMW Class 4
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Protected Variable: This variable can be used in other class and also outside of the class but you need to use "_" to create this sort of variable

class Car:
    _color = "Black" #proteced variable

class Bmw(Car):
    def __init__(self):
        print("Inside the BMW Class",self._color)#used within a different class

car=Car()
print(car._color)#used outside of the class
bmw=Bmw()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Black
Inside the BMW Class Black
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Private Variable: You cannot use Private variable outside a class but use it within a class . Don't forget to use "__" before the variable

class Car:
    __yearOfManufacture = 2017

    def Private_key(self):
        print("Private attribute yearOfManufacture: ",car.__yearOfManufacture)  # private variable only works with its own class


car=Car()
car.Private_key()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Private attribute yearOfManufacture:  2017
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Example using all of the variables

#Public=membername
#Protected=_memberName
#Private=__memberName
class Car:
    numberOfWheels=4
    _color="Black"
    __yearOfManufacture=2017

    def Private_key(self):
        print("Private attribute yearOfManufacture: ", car.__yearOfManufacture) #private variable only works with its own class


class Bmw(Car):
    def __init__(self):
        print("Protected attribute color",self._color)#By using Inheritence we got Car class's variable

car=Car()
print("Public attribute numberOfWheels",car.numberOfWheels)
bmw=Bmw() # while we create this object . things under it's __init__ will be printed
car.Private_key()

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Public attribute numberOfWheels 4
Protected attribute color Black
Private attribute yearOfManufacture:  2017
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Class variable & Instance Variable

Instance Variable: Instance variable is variable dealing with the instance/object . You can change it's value outside of the class. You can access Instance variable by

class Book():

    def __init__(self):
        self.x = 100  # instance variable

    def display(self):
        print(self.x)


b = Book()
print(b.x)  # printing instance variable

b.x=101 #changing the value of x
print(b.x)

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

100
101
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Class Variable: Class Variable is valid for the class and can be called with its

class Book():
    x = 5  # class variable
    y=6

    def __init__(self):
        self.x = 100  # instance variable

    def display(self):
        print(self.x)


b = Book()
print("class variable",Book.x)  # printing class variable
print("instance variable",b.x)  # printing instance variable
print("class variable",Book.y)

#changng the class variable changes the value for class and instance
Book.y=7
print("class variable",Book.y)
print("instance variable",b.y)

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

class variable 5
instance variable 100
class variable 6
class variable 7
instance variable 7
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Instance method, Class method ,Static method

Instance method: Instance method is method which can be used for instance/object .

class MyClass():

    def __init__(self,x):
        self._x=x

    def method1(self):#instance method
        print(self._x)


value=MyClass(100)
value.method1()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

100
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Class method: class method can be used by the class and you have to create @classmethod to create a class method and it can be accessed through . Again, you have to set cls as parameter of the class method

class MyClass():
    a=5

    #class method
    @classmethod
    def method2(cls): #cls refers to class object
        print(cls.a)

MyClass.method2()#calling class method (prints 5)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

5
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

But,if you don't want to use "cls", you can use your desired parameter name

class MyClass():
    a=5


    #class method
    @classmethod
    def method2(class_method): #cls refers to class object
        print(class_method.a)


MyClass.method2()#calling class method (prints 5)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

5
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Static Method: Static method does not have any must parameter like self or cls . It just works like a random function we used to make

class MyClass():

    @staticmethod
    def method3(m,n): #takes 2 value
        return m+n #returns their sum

object=MyClass()
print(object.method3(10,20))
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

30
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

property method
To get value from a method, you may set it as a property method using @property before the method name . You can access the property method using . Don't use () at the end of the method name .

class Product:
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self._x = x
        self._y = y

    @property  # to get any value using this method written  as   object.method or, p.value not like p.value()
    def value(self): #property method
        return self._x


p = Product(23, 24)
print(p.value) # you cannot use p.value()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

23
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Again you can set value of the property method by using

class Product:
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self._x = x
        self._y = y



    @property  # to get any value using this method written  as   object.method or, p.value not like p.value()
    def value(self):
        return self._x

    @value.setter  # to set  value
    def value(self, val):
        self._x=val


p = Product(23, 24)
print(p.value)

p.value=100
print("After setting the new value, it is now",p.value)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

23
After setting the new value, it is now 100

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

To delete a value from property method, you can use

class Product:
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self._x = x
        self._y = y



    @property  # to get any value using this method written  a variable ex: object.method or, p.value not like p.value()
    def value(self):
        return self._x

    @value.setter  # to set a function to assign value
    def value(self, val):
        self._x = val

    # while we delete a value,this method will be applied ex: del p.value
    @value.deleter
    def value(self):
        print('Value  deleted')


p = Product(12, 24)
print("Property object has the 1st value",p.value)
#to delete the value use del and then objectname.variable name
del p.value
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Property object has the 1st value 12
Value  deleted
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Dispatch method
Dispatch method is used to work with specific thing . for example if you want to work with 3 integers or 3 float or float and an integer, you can create a custom method.
Note: Don't forget to install multipledispatch package

for example to work with 3 integers, you can use and then your desired method with 4 parameters including self .

@dispatch(int,int,int)#working for 3 integers
    def product(self,a,b,c):
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Let's check a code

from multipledispatch import dispatch
class my_calculator():

    @dispatch(int,int)#when we have 2 input, it will work
    def product(self,a,b):
        print("Product of 2 integers : ",a*b)

    @dispatch(int,int,int)#working for 3 integers
    def product(self,a,b,c):
        print("Product of 3 integers : ",a*b)
    @dispatch(float,float,float)#working for 3 floats
    def product(self,a,b,c):
        print("Product of 3 floats : ",a*b*c)
    @dispatch(float,int)#working for a int and a float
    def product(self,c,d):
        print("Product of 1 float and 1 integer : ",c*d)
c1=my_calculator()
c1.product(4,5)
c1.product(4,7,6)
c1.product(4.0,5.0,3.0)
c1.product(4.0,3)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Product of 2 integers :  20
Product of 3 integers :  28
Product of 3 floats :  60.0
Product of 1 float and 1 integer :  12.0
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Magic Method
Magic method starts with __ and ends with __

Code:

class Fraction:
    def __init__(self,nr,dr=1):
        self.nr=nr
        self.dr=dr
        if self.dr<0:
            self.nr*=-1
            self.dr*=-1
        self.__reduce__()

    def show(self):
        print(f'{self.nr}/{self.dr}')



    def __str__(self):
         return f'{self.nr}/{self.dr}'

    def __repr__(self):
         return f'Fraction({self.nr}/{self.dr})'

    def __add__(self, other):#magic method __method__
        if isinstance(other,int):
            other=Fraction(other)
        f=Fraction(self.nr*other.dr+other.nr*self.dr)
        f.__reduce__()
        return f
    def __radd__(self, other):#reverse add
        return self.__add__(other)


    def __sub__(self, other):
        if isinstance(other,int):
            other=Fraction(other)
        f=Fraction(self.nr*other.dr-other.nr*self.dr)
        f.__reduce__()
        return f

    def __mult__(self,other):
        if isinstance(other,int):
            other=Fraction(other)
        f=Fraction(self.nr*other.nr,self.dr*other.dr)
        f.__reduce__()
        return f
    def __eq__(self,other):
        return (self.nr*other.dr)==(self.dr*other.nr)

    def __lt__(self, other):
          return (self.nr*other.dr)<(self.dr*other.nr)

    def __le__(self, other):
          return (self.nr*other.dr)<=(self.dr*other.nr)

    def __reduce__(self):
        h=Fraction.hcf(self.nr,self.dr)
        if h==0:
            return
        self.nr//=h
        self.dr//=h
    @staticmethod
    def something():   pass

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Protected method , Private method
You can use protected method outside of the class but cannot use private method outside of the method

class Product:
    def __init__(self):
        self.data1=10
        self._data2=20 #protected variable
    def methodA(self):
        pass
    def _methodB(self): #pprotected  method
        print("Hello to protected method")
    def __methodC(self):#private method
        print("Hola")


p=Product()
print(dir(p)) #You can see additionally _data2', '_methodB', 'data1', 'methodA'
print(p._data2) #accessing the protected variable
p._methodB() #calling the proteced method

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

['_Product__methodC', '__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__init_subclass__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__module__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__', '_data2', '_methodB', 'data1', 'methodA']
20
Hello to protected method
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Operator Overloading
To set specific rules for a specific operator, we use operator overloading . For example, add is used for "+"
Check out this link: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/operator-overloading-in-python/

If we want to add 2 different object one has 1 and 6 and other has 9 and 3, we will use operator overloading to do so

class Point:
    def __init__(self, x=0, y=0):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

    def __str__(self): #if asked to print string type
        return "({0},{1})".format(self.x, self.y)

    def __add__(self, other): #works for + opetator
        x = self.x + self.y
        y = other.x + other.y
        return Point(x, y)


p1 = Point(1, 6)#worked for self
p2 = Point(9, 3)#other
print("P1 has 1st value",p1.x)
print("P1 has 2nd value", p1.y)
print("P2 has 1st value",p2.x)
print("P2 has 2nd value", p2.y)
print("Summation of p1+p2 is",p1+p2)#as p1 is first so self is for p1 and p2 gets others


Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

To realize it in a better way,use Thonny IDE from this link (https://thonny.org/) and paste this code and debug . You can see how the code is proceeding
Ouput:

P1 has 1st value 1
P1 has 2nd value 6
P2 has 1st value 9
P2 has 2nd value 3
Summation of p1+p2 is (7,12)

Process finished with exit code 0

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Polymorphism
There might be method of same name but to use them depending on their class, we use it like this

class Car:
    def start(self):
        print('Engine started')
    def move(self):
        print('Car is running')

    def stop(self):
        print('Brales applied')

class Clock:
    def move(self):
        print('Tick Tick Tick')

    def stop(self):
        print('Clock needles stopped')

class Person:
    def move(self):
        print('Person walking')
    def stop(self):
        print('Taking rest')
    def talk(self):
        print('Hello')


car=Car()
clock=Clock()
person=Person()

#this method will run with which instance you call it
def do_something(x):
    x.move()
    x.stop()


# calling with car instance
do_something(car) #car is an object of Car class

#calling with clock instance
do_something(clock) # clock is an object of Clock class

#calling with person instance
do_something(person) #person is an object of Person class
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

Car is running
Brales applied
Tick Tick Tick
Clock needles stopped
Person walking
Taking rest
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Inheritance
Let's assume that your college has CSE , BBA department . They have few things in common. All of them have student ID card, they are from he same college . So,, while you want to take all the information of BBA student or CSE student , you can do one thing. You can create a class names Student which works for common purposes and you can create 2 different class which will work with other extra information like BBA Students with have marketing classes where CSE Students will have Labs. So, to work with this code , we can use inheritance . So, while creating BBA Student class , we will use the "Student" class in the peremeter to mean inheritance
Note: Here "Student": class will be called parent class and "BBA Student " class will be student class

Again , to use something from the parent class, you will have to use

class Student:
    def __init__(self, name='Just a student', dept='nothing'):
        self.__name = name
        self.__department = dept

    def set_department(self, dept):
        self.__department = dept

    def get_name(self):
        return self.__name

    def set_name(self, name):
        self.__name = name

    def __str__(self):
        return f"Name: {self.__name} \nDepartment: {self.__department}\n"



# write your code here
class BBA_Student(Student):
    def __init__(self, name="default", department="BBA"):
        super().__init__(name, department)#used Student class's __init__ method
        print("I am a BBA Students . We do marketing courses")

class CSE_Student(Student):
    def __init__(self,name="default",department="CSE"):
        super().__init__(name,department)#used Student class's __init__ method
        print("I am a CSE Student and I have a lots of lab to complete")

print(BBA_Student('Karim Ali'))#using BBA_Student class inherited Student class
print(CSE_Student('Mitul'))# using CSE_Student class inherited Student class
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output:

I am a BBA Students . We do marketing courses
Name: Karim Ali 
Department: BBA

I am a CSE Student and I have a lots of lab to complete
Name: Mitul 
Department: CSE

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Discussion (0)