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Makanju Oluwafemi
Makanju Oluwafemi

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CSR and SSR: A must known software development methodology for developers and website owners.

Originally published by me at

In this article, I will be explaining how CSR (client-side rendering) and SSR (server-side rendering) work. I will further explain the old way of building html files that are rendered on the browser, the solution that CSR aims to solve, and the use cases for these software development methodologies. Readers interested in software development, frontend developers, and backend developers will have a better understanding of CSR and SSR applications in modern applications after reading through this article. However, a website owner or product manager would understand which to choose between SSR and CSR when starting out a new product.


  1. Evolution of SPAs (Single Page Applications)
  2. CSR in view
  3. SSR in view
  4. Conclusion

The Evolution of SPA (Single Page Application)

In the early stages of web development, when updates were only visible after a frequent page reload, the way we interact with web apps has significantly advanced. We now have single-page apps (SPAs), which provide smooth and dynamic user experiences thanks to the advancement of web technologies. SPAs have revolutionized the way we create web apps and have grown to be widely favored by both developers and businesses.

Static Web Pages: The Beginning of the Web

Static web pages served as the foundation for the World Wide Web as we know it today. When a user requests a page from a web server, the page is rendered in the user's web browser using HTML, the markup language that defines the structure and content of online pages. Static web pages had basic design and functional limitations. They required the user to explicitly reload the page in order to view any updates and were typically used to display static content, such as text, graphics, and links.

Dynamic Web Pages: The Rise of Server-Side Scripting

Server-side scripting methods emerged to produce dynamic web pages as web applications grew more complex and required dynamic content. With server-side scripting, HTML pages could be dynamically generated on the server and then sent to the user's browser. Examples of server-side programming languages include PHP, ASP, and Java. This made it possible to create web applications that were more interactive and dynamic and could update content without refreshing the entire page.Server-side scripting did have some restrictions, though. The server had to go back and forth in response to each user request, which slowed the loading of pages and increased server-side processing. Server-side scripting became more difficult to maintain and scale as online applications increased in complexity and size, necessitating the use of a more effective strategy.

The Birth of SPA: A New Paradigm in Web Development

In the early 2000s, with the advent of modern web technologies such as AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML), a new paradigm in web development emerged: single-page applications (SPAs). SPAs introduced a client-side rendering approach, where the browser dynamically updates the content of a web page without requiring a full page reload. SPAs are built using modern web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and are powered by powerful client-side frameworks such as Angular, React, and Vue. These frameworks provide developers with the tools and libraries needed to create complex and interactive web applications that run entirely in the user's browser.Advantages of SPAs: Speed, Efficiency, and Better User Experiences

CSR in view

Client-Side Rendering is referred to as CSR. In contrast to the server-side rendering (SSR) method, where content is rendered on the server and provided to the client's browser as HTML, this approach to web development renders web content on the client-side, generally using JavaScript. In CSR, the initial HTML page transmitted from the server to the client's browser is frequently straightforward and just contains the web application's very minimal structure and layout. Next, using JavaScript frameworks or libraries like React, Angular, or Vue, the actual content and user interface are generated dynamically on the client side. These frameworks enable programmers to design intricate and interactive user interfaces that dynamically update without necessitating a full page reload.

One of the key advantages of CSR is that it can lead to quicker initial page loads because the server can transmit a minimum HTML page to the client immediately, and the remaining content can be loaded and rendered on the client side without requiring repeated server requests. This will eventually lead to a responsive and engaging experience for the users. However, CSR has significant drawbacks.

The application may not be as friendly in terms of SEO (search engine optimization) as SSR because search engines can find it challenging to crawl and index dynamically created content. For complicated systems, CSR can be difficult to implement since it necessitates careful client-side management of state and data flow. Today, despite these drawbacks, CSR has become a popular approach in web development due to its flexibility, interactivity, and performance benefits. It allows for the creation of dynamic and responsive user interfaces that can provide a seamless user experience, making it a key part of the evolution of web applications, including the development of single-page applications (SPAs).

SSR in View

SSR (Server-Side Rendering) is a technique used in web development technology.In SSR, the server generates the HTML content with the data from the server-side, and the client receives the pre-rendered HTML page, which is then displayed without further processing. Although it has advantages like better performance and SEO, it also has drawbacks like greater server load and difficult development. There are frameworks and tools available to make the process more efficient. Server-side rendering logic, data fetching, and HTML template rendering are often required when implementing SSR. Hybrid approaches that combine SSR and CSR can also be used for optimized performance and user experience.

Benefits of SSR

SSR offers a lot of benefits, including improved performance in web applications, better SEO, and a better user experience. By rendering the HTML on the server, SSR can provide faster page load times, as the client receives a fully rendered HTML page that can be displayed immediately. This can lead to an improved user experience, as users can quickly access the content without waiting for JavaScript to load. SSR also helps with SEO, as search engines can easily crawl and index the fully rendered HTML content.

Challenges of SSR

SSR also comes with some challenges. Since the server is responsible for rendering the HTML, it can put a heavier load on the server, especially when dealing with a large number of concurrent requests. Additionally, SSR may require more complex server-side logic and setup compared to CSR, as it involves generating HTML templates on the server and handling data fetching and rendering. This can result in increased development and maintenance complexity.

In conclusion, both server-side rendering (SSR) and client-side rendering (CSR) are important techniques in web development, each with its own strengths and trade-offs. SSR, which involves generating fully rendered HTML pages on the server and sending them to the client, can offer faster initial page load times, better SEO, and an improved user experience. It is particularly useful for content-heavy websites and applications that require fast loading times and good search engine visibility. However, it may require more server-side processing and development complexity.

On the other hand, CSR, which relies on dynamically rendering content on the client-side using JavaScript, can provide more interactivity and flexibility, making it well-suited for complex web applications with interactive features. It can also offload some of the processing burden from the server, potentially reducing server load. However, it may result in slower initial page load times and reduced SEO visibility.

The choice between SSR and CSR depends on the specific requirements and constraints of a project. Some websites or applications may benefit from SSR for improved performance and SEO, while others may prioritize the interactivity and flexibility of CSR. In some cases, a hybrid approach that combines SSR and CSR, such as server-side rendering with client-side hydration, can provide the best of both worlds.

Web developers should carefully consider the needs of their project and choose the appropriate rendering approach that aligns with their goals for performance, SEO, user experience, and development complexity. Both SSR and CSR are valuable techniques that can be used effectively in different contexts, and understanding their pros and cons can help developers make informed decisions for creating optimal web experiences.

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