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# The Complete Cypher Cheat Sheet

### Introduction

Cypher is the most widely adopted, fully specified, and open query language for property graph databases. It provides an intuitive and fast way to work with property graphs.

This article contains some of the most useful and common Cypher queries and their explanations. Whenever you are not sure how to write a Cypher query, you can take a look at this cheat sheet and try again. If you are new to graph databases and Cypher, you can also use this post to get acquainted with some of the features that Cypher and Memgraph offer.

## 1. Matching

### Find nodes with specific properties

``````MATCH (c:City)
WHERE c.name = "London"
RETURN c.population_size;
``````
• `MATCH (c:City)`: the MATCH clause specifies a node pattern with the label `City` and assigns the matches to variable `c`.
• `WHERE c.name = "London"`: the WHERE clause filters the matched results to those with a `name` property with value London.
• `RETURN c.population_size`: the RETURN clause is used to request specific results.

This query can be rewritten without a WHERE clause to achieve the same result.

``````MATCH (c:City {name: "London"})
RETURN c.population_size;
``````

### Find nodes with specific relationships

``````MATCH (city:City)-[:IN]-(country:Country)
WHERE city.name = "London"
RETURN country.name;
``````
• `MATCH (city:City)-[:IN]-(country:Country)`: the MATCH clause specifies a node and relationship pattern with two connected nodes, labeled `City` and `Country`, connected by a relationship of type `IN`.

### Match labels

``````MATCH (c:City)
RETURN c;
``````

This query can be rewritten using the WHERE clause to achieve the same result.

``````MATCH (c)
WHERE c:City
RETURN c;
``````

### Match multiple labels

``````MATCH (c:City:Country)
RETURN c;
``````

This query can be rewritten using the WHERE clause to achieve the same result.

``````MATCH (c)
WHERE c:City AND c:Country
RETURN c;
``````

### Matching nodes with properties in a range

``````MATCH (c:City)
WHERE c.population_size >= 1000000 AND c.population_size <= 2000000
RETURN c;
``````

## 2. Creating

### Create a node

``````CREATE (c:City {name: "Zagreb", population_size: 1000000});
``````
• `c:City`: creates a new node with the label `City` and assigns it to variable `c` (which can be omitted if it's not needed).
• `{name: "Zagreb", population_size: 1000000}`: the newly created node has two properties, one with a string value and another with an integer value.

### Create nodes with relationships

``````CREATE (c1:City {name: "UK"}),
(c2:City {name: "London", population_size: 9000000})
(c1)<-[r:IN]-(c2)
RETURN c1, c2, r;
``````

The CREATE clause is used to create two new nodes and a directed relationship between them.

### Create a relationship between existing nodes

``````MATCH (c1), (c2)
WHERE c1.name = "UK" AND c2.name = "London"
CREATE (c2)-[:IN]->(c1);
``````

This will create a directed relationship of type `IN` between two existing nodes. If such a relationship already exists, this query will result in a duplicate. To avoid this, you can use the MERGE clause:

``````MATCH (c1), (c2)
WHERE c1.name = "UK" AND c2.name = "London"
MERGE (c2)-[:IN]->(c1);
``````

## 3. Updating

### Add or update node properties

``````MATCH (c:Country {name: "UK"})
SET c.name = "United Kingdom";
``````

If you use the SET clause on a property that doesn't exist, it will be created.

### Replace all node properties

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.name = "United Kingdom"
SET c = {name: "UK", population_size: "66650000"};
``````
• `SET c = {name: "UK" ...}`: this SET clause will delete all existing properties and create the newly specified ones.

### Update multiple node properties

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.name = "United Kingdom"
SET c += {name: "UK", population_size: "66650000"};
``````
• `SET c += {name: "UK" ...}`: this SET clause will add new properties and update existing ones if they are already set.

### Check if a property exists and update it

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.name = "Germany" AND c.language IS NULL
SET c.language = "German";
``````

Because the WHERE clause contains the statement `c.language IS NULL`, the node will only be matched if it doesn't have a `language` property.

### Rename a property

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.official_language IS null
SET c.official_language = c.language
REMOVE c.language;
``````
• `WHERE c.official_language IS null`: the WHERE clause makes sure that you only create the new property in nodes that don't have a property with the same name.
• `SET n.official_language = n.language`: you are technically not renaming a property but rather creating a new one with a different name and the same value.
• `REMOVE n.language`: the REMOVE clause is used to delete the old property.

## 4. Deleting

### Delete a node

``````MATCH (c)-[r]-()
WHERE c.name = "US"
DELETE r, c;
``````
• `DELETE r, c`: before you can delete a node, all of its relationships must be deleted first.

This query can be rewritten with the DETACH clause to achieve the same result.

``````MATCH (c)
WHERE c.name = "US"
DETACH DELETE c;
``````

### Delete a property

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.name = "US" AND c.language IS NOT null
DELETE c.language;
``````

This query will delete the property `language` from a specific node.

### Delete label in every node

``````MATCH (c)
DELETE c:Country;
``````

This query will delete the label `Country` from every node.

### Delete one of multiple labels

``````MATCH (c)
WHERE c:Country:City
REMOVE c:City;
``````

This will delete the label `City` from every node that has the labels `Country` and `City`.

### Delete all nodes and relationships

``````MATCH (n)
DETACH DELETE n;
``````

This query will delete the whole database.

## 5. Constraints

### Create a uniqueness constraint

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT ON (c:City)
ASSERT c.location IS UNIQUE;
``````

This query will make sure that every node with the label `City` has a unique value for the `location` property.

### Create an existence constraint

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT ON (c:City)
ASSERT exists (c.name);
``````

This query will make sure that every node with the label `City` has the property `name`.

### Check constraints

``````SHOW CONSTRAINT INFO;
``````

This query will list all active constraints in the database.

### Drop a uniqueness constraint

``````DROP CONSTRAINT ON (c:City)
ASSERT c.location IS UNIQUE;
``````

This query will remove the specified uniqueness constraint.

### Drop an existence constraint

``````DROP CONSTRAINT ON (c:City)
ASSERT exists (c.name);
``````

This query will remove the specified existence constraint.

## 6. Graph Algorithms

To find out more about the built-in algorithms in Memgraph, take a look at the reference guide.

``````MATCH (c1:City {name: "London"})-[
]-(c2:City {name: "Paris"})
RETURN *;
``````

This query will find all paths of length up to 10 between nodes `c1` and `c2`.

### Weighted Shortest Path

``````MATCH (c1:City {name: "London"})-[
edge_list:ROAD_TO *wShortest 10 (e, n | e.weight) total_weight
]-(c2:City {name: "Paris"})
RETURN *;
``````

The above query will find the shortest path of length up to 10 nodes between nodes `c1` and `c2`. The length restriction parameter is optional.

## 7. NetworkX

If you want to know which NetworkX algorithms are available in Memgraph, take a look at the reference guide.

### Analyze the whole graph

``````CALL graph_analyzer.analyze() WITH YIELD *;
``````

This query will return various information like the number of nodes, number of edges, average degree, etc.

### Find weakly connected components (Union Find)

``````MATCH (n)-[e]->()
WITH collect(n) AS nodes, collect(e) AS edges
CALL wcc.get_components(nodes, edges) YIELD *
RETURN n_components, components;
``````

This query will search the whole graph for weakly connected components.

### Calculate PageRank for all nodes

``````CALL nxalg.pagerank() YIELD *
RETURN node.name AS name, rank
ORDER BY rank DESC
LIMIT 10;
``````

This query will calculate the rank of every node, order them from highest to lowest and return the first 10 results.

## 8. Other Useful Cypher Queries

### Count all nodes

``````MATCH (n)
RETURN count(n);
``````

This query will return the number of nodes in the database.

### Count all relationships

``````MATCH ()-->()
RETURN count(*);
``````

This query will return the number of relationships in the database.

### Limit the number of returned results

``````MATCH (c:City)
RETURN c
LIMIT 5;
``````
• `LIMIT 5`: this will limit the number of returned nodes to 5.

### Specify an alias for results

``````MATCH (c:Country)
WHERE c.name = "US"
RETURN c.population_size AS population
``````

By using `AS` with the RETURN clause, the property
population_size` will be returned with an alias.

## Conclusion

Cypher is an extensive query language with lots of features, and this cheat sheet is a great starting point for mastering them. If you are new to Cypher, we suggest taking our ten-day Cypher email course.

You can also go through our Cypher lessons on Memgraph Playground,
an online platform for running Cypher queries on live data.

If you have any questions about Cypher that aren't covered in this article, please take a look at our Cypher manual. Feel free also to share your questions at our Discord server.