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Martin Gaston
Martin Gaston

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Understanding Java Objects, Abstract and Concrete

I've been working a lot in Java lately, but only when my project required me to adopt some of the famous object-oriented design patterns did I realise how totally unsure I was of what was going on at a fundamental level, so I found it a real challenge to keep up with all the terminology. I felt like I had hit a brick wall.

I decided to invest some time in unpacking some of those building blocks - so let's blow the doors off some of this Java jargon. I'm hoping that if you've ever felt in a similar position that these notes might be able to help further your own understanding of Java's sprawl.

Java Jargon #1: Creating Objects

In Java, almost everything is an object - such as String, ArrayList and HashMap. Objects are created from classes. Think of your class code as an instruction manual for Java to produce an object.

Creating an object requires creating an instance of a class - so the phrase instantiating a class is often used by people who want to sound especially smart. But you can use both terms interchangeably, depending on who you're talking to or if you're trying to win a game of Scrabble.

To formally create an object/instantiate a class, which is to say what we have to do in order to stop the compiler from going full on Mr Resetti at us, we follow a three-step process: declaration, instantiation and initialisation.

Declaration is achieved by specifying the type and the name of a variable, so we could tell Java Dragon viserion;, which would get everything prepped and primed to accept a Dragon type. But at this point our object is currently closer to my checking account than a fearsome dragon: it's empty. Nothing in it. Zip, nada, nill or, specifically, null.

Always watch out for null. If I had kids, I wouldn't like to see them hanging around with null.

For the record: Java also has both primitive and reference variables, which we can wave our hands at now but can potentially create some additional bother every now and then, generally when it comes to assignment and comparison. But, hey, we're programming in Java so it's probably safe to assume we're all kind of into a spot of bother every now and then.

Anyway, we're ready for steps 2 and 3 - instantiation and initialisation, which like to rock up as a pair:

viserion = new Dragon();

The new operator instantiates the class, allocating the required memory behind the scenes and then returning a reference (the address) of that memory so our viserion variable knows where to send anyone who comes knocking. Calling new also requires a call to a constructor, which is where the parenthesis enter the scene. The () part handles initialisation, which goes sniffing out a class constructor that matches the signature and finally gets our object fully setup and ready to come out.

Constructors in a Java class have the same name as the class and no return type. If we take a look at our Dragon class we can see that it has two constructor signatures: one which can respond to a zero-argument constructor, which will in turn call our two-argument constructor that requires a Stomach and Mouth argument with defaults.

public class Dragon {
  private Stomach stomach;
  private Mouth mouth;

  public Dragon() {
    this(new BigStomach(), new BigMouth());

  public Dragon(Stomach stomach, Mouth mouth) {
    this.stomach = stomach;
    this.mouth = mouth;

  public eat(Food food) {

  public dracarys(Target target) {
    return mouth.breatheFire(target);

Constructors are mandatory for classes, but if one isn't explicitly defined then the compiler will treat the class to a zero-argument default constructor totally free of charge.

We've also split declaration and instantiation/initialisation of viserion across two lines, which isn't necessary - we can also declare all of our assignment on a single line if we'd like. We don't even need to assign our objects to variables, either, and can instead use them directly in an expression. Let's bring all of that together and create another Dragon:

Dragon drogon = new Dragon(new GiantStomach(), new GiantMouth());

We're declaring a reference variable drogon, instantiating our Dragon class with new and then initialising it with our constructor which responds to the Stomach and Mouth signature. We're also instantiating two new objects, GiantStomach and GiantMouth, directly in our constructor call.

Now, how about a real example? Look at how ArrayList features three constructor signatures in the Java source code:

// Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {
  if (initialCapacity > 0) {
    this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
  } else if (initialCapacity == 0) {
    this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
  } else {
    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+ initialCapacity);

// Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
public ArrayList() {

// Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's iterator.
public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
  elementData = c.toArray();
  if ((size = elementData.length) != 0) {
    if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)
      elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);
  } else {
    this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

Yikes, that was quite a lot to take in. Consider it work on the foundations. If you're anything like me, you often know this stuff without actually, you know, knowing it, so it's nice to have a refresher.

Java Jargon #2: Concrete Classes

This word pops up all over the place and I've found you're supposed to know what it means by default. For the record, I didn't really know what it meant for months.

To summarise it in a sentence, a concrete class is any class you can create (instantiate) with the new keyword. Concrete classes have all of their methods implemented, regardless of however many interfaces they implement or classes they extend.

There's no specific language keywords needed when it comes to making something concrete, but you'll probably see the word pop-up a lot in UML diagrams and people shooting the breeze about object-oriented programming, so it's nice to know what's going on so you can take part in the conversation.

Our Dragon class is bona fide, 100% certified concrete, which is totally easy to do when you're not using anything abstract. I find it easier to think of classes as concrete by default and only really in terms of concrete and abstract when using either inheritance (via extends) and interfaces (via implements).

Java Jargon #3: Interfaces

If a concrete class is an instruction manual, an interface is a blueprint - it's a list of unimplemented method signatures that, by stating we will implement the interface, our class is pledging to support. When a class opts to implement an interface, this is often said to be a contract - because the class that's implementing is essentially promising to include these methods.

Not fulfilling an Interface contract will also have the compiler visit you in the dead of night, provided you're compiling your code at night. It won't be happy about it.

A Java class can implement many interfaces, as you can see with ArrayList:

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, {

You'll spot a lot of the '-able' interfaces when you work in Java - here we can see Cloneable and Serializable, and you'll see these pop up time and time again, but for now we'll focus on List. Notice how List uses the interface keyword instead of class:

public interface List<E> {
    int size();
    boolean isEmpty();
    //... there's plenty more empty methods

Neither size() nor isEmpty() are implemented in this interface. We couldn't create a List object from this interface with the new keyword, which is why it's not a concrete class. But, by implementing List, ArrayList pledges to follow the contract and ensure it knows how to respond when sent requests for any of the interface method signatures.

Interfaces are like a little bow tie for some of your classes - they add a neat degree of formality, which the type checker respects. You can use interface names as the type for your reference variables, too, which means any class implementing that interface will be allowed to be assigned to it.

Java Jargon #4: Abstract Classes

Abstract classes can have both implemented and unimplemented methods, but they're not concrete because they can't create an object with the new keyword. However, subclasses can use the extends keyword to inherit their functionality.

Many of Java's List collections inherit from the abstract class AbstractList:

public abstract class AbstractList<E> {
  public boolean add(E e) {
    add(size(), e);
    return true;

  public abstract E get(int index);

Notice the abstract keyword used to denote both an abstract class and an abstract method: use of the latter requires declaration of the former. Also notice how the abstract method get lacks braces and features a semicolon, similar to the way we declared our interface methods earlier.

ArrayList is a subclass of AbstractList, and so has to implement a get method but will inherit the add method:

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, {
  // ...
  public E get(int index) {
    Objects.checkIndex(index, size);
    return elementData(index);

If ArrayList did not implement its own get method while extending AbstractList it would have to declare its class abstract in order to satiate the compiler, which would mean it could not create objects using the new keyword and would also be unable to reach that much-desired concrete status.

Wrapping Up

We've taken a look at what makes a concrete and abstract class in Java, which meant familiarising ourself with how classes are instantiated. We moved from a simple example Dragon class to looking at some slices of source code from JDK 12, taking a look at how ArrayList extends AbstractList and implements ArrayList.

Understanding these building blocks creates a massively useful foundation for getting to grips with the strict object-oriented nature some of Java's most prominent design patterns.

Has this post been useful for you? I'd really appreciate any comments and feedback on whether there's anything that could be made clearer or explained better. I'd also massively appreciate any corrections!

Top comments (3)

kerushag profile image

Enjoyed this, but the examples of when something is abstract at the end of your article got a bit confusing... Is a class abstract when it uses the keyword abstract and when it is using inheritance?

uurdev profile image
Uğur Çiftçi

Thanks for the content

andevr profile image

I'm going to be coming back to this. I'm learning Java, currently getting ready to start OOP so I'm definitely going to need to reread this. Thanks.