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Cover image for Omfg books have tech stacks now: how I used web technologies to layout and print a book
Manuel Bieh
Manuel Bieh

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Omfg books have tech stacks now: how I used web technologies to layout and print a book

Sorry for the title, I just had to quote Kitze here:

A few months ago, in April 2019, I published a book about React. It's a technical book. And by saying that, I mean it's a technical book in a number of ways. Sure, the content is all about React, how React works, how you build components and applications with React. In that way, it's a technical book like any other.

The more interesting aspect is the second way in which it is a technical book: namely, the way it is produced.

The writing phase

I used an early version of the great new version of because it's meant to be used for technical articles and texts, like documentation or ... books. At least that's what you might think when you take a look at their name.

Well, as it turned out, although it's indeed great for writing comprehensive documentation in a very nice and easy way, it's not really intended to be use to write actual books. By the time I was writing the book, there wasn't even a way to export your Gitbook as PDF or any other format like ePub (and I'm not even sure there is an official way today). What they instead do is to publish a beautifully designed HTML version which is stored entirely on GitHub as Markdown files with a few custom enhancements.

I didn't know how difficult it is to turn your Gitbook into an actual book until I wrote ~120 pages and neither did I want to go back to Google Docs or Word for writing as it's still a technical book with a lot of code examples and they really don't look great in Word docs.

The fun part

So I did what developers do when they have other more important things to do: I procrastinated and built my own toolset and tech stack around my book.

I cloned the GitHub repo of my book. I installed Showdown and the Showdown Highlight plugin to convert the Markdown source files into HTML, with beautifully styled code examples. I even used Prettier to automatically format the code examples within code blocks! I then combined all converted files into one giant HTML file.

I then added Puppeteer to the stack. This allowed me to to convert the Markdown files I converted into HTML earlier into a PDF very easily. Since I used HTML as source format for conversion, I was able to use CSS to style the whole book! Puppeteer is really great at converting HTML files into PDF with a fairly good support for CSS Print features (well, sometimes more, sometimes less good). This way I was able to layout and style the PDF (which I later sent to the print shop!) pretty much exactly how I liked it.

For the ePub version I decided to use the fantastic Pandoc. Pandoc allows you to convert many different text based formats (Docx, HTML, Markdown, ...) into other formats like ePub. Writing CSS for ePub feels a little bit like building email templates. That's really something you don't want to customize too much because you have no guarantee that your ePub will look exactly how you want it to look in every client. So I only used as little custom CSS as necessary.

Hacks and caveats

The whole process was a bit tricky and required a few hacks (as always, huh?) and it also comes with a few caveats. For example I'm unable to add page numbers to the TOC in the PDF, because by the time I am generating the TOC, I don't know the page numbers, as they will be automatically added by Puppeteer later in the final PDF conversion step.

The CSS orphans and widows properties also seem to not work properly or at least not how I would have expected them to work. And my impression is that break-* properties also cause some unexpected behavior sometimes. Not beautiful, but neglectible for me.

In general though, I am really happy about the result: a book, written in my web browser, stored as Markdown on GitHub and converted into a real printed book completely based on web technologies!

The code is still a bit hacky, I never really cleaned it up, but if you're interested in reproducing it, or even want to convert your own Gitbook into a nicely styled PDF, you can find the code on GitHub:

Here's a small impression how the result looks like in the end:

Discussion (8)

learnbyexample profile image
Sundeep • Edited

The legacy gitbook actually did what the name meant, it gives an option to download the book in pdf/epub/mobi format (though imo only pdf is readable for technical books with figures and code snippets)

For my books, I use pandoc+xelatex to convert Github style markdown to pdf, I searched stackoverflow sites for tex settings and I've now settled into a flow that works for me. I wrote an article too, if you'd like to compare with your flow:

manuelbieh profile image
Manuel Bieh Author • Edited

I was not happy with the layout/design of the generated PDF, that’s why I decided to build my own converter πŸ˜‰

learnbyexample profile image

yeah agree, legacy gitbook still works, but isn't good enough for publishing

ahferroin7 profile image
Austin S. Hemmelgarn

Yeah, CSS support for print media tends to get forgotten about by a lot of web developers. It's a whole lot easier to use than TeX (which was originally designed for this type of thing) though unless you need really complicated typesetting functionality.

hexrcs profile image
Xiaoru Li πŸ‡¨πŸ‡³πŸ‡©πŸ‡ͺ • Edited

True that TeX is designed specifically for typesetting printed media, but it's just too complex to use if you simply want to get things done and don't plan to invest time into learning it systematically. Debugging TeX is a nightmare thanks to its cryptic error messages.

vimmer9 profile image
Damir Franusic

LaTeX is not so complex and you should consider investing some time in it if you intend to keep writing books.

It may be harder to debug its output, but it all depends on numerous variables and sheer number of plugins being used. I am not an expert but have written technical documentation in LaTeX and used Tikz scripting language for drawing schematics.

It was a steep learning curve, but it really is the most powerful publishing tool you can find.

If you ever decide to write another book, give LaTeX a try.

Congratulations on Your book, it's an admirable achievement.

andrewdavis2 profile image
AndrewDavis2 • Edited

Interesting enough. I think it will be worth reading in the future. I've always liked technical books. The author's respect for such an article design is a higher level when you want to read and express your emotions. By the way regarding emotions, I recommend edusson legit - an analysis of an essay writing site is provided. essayservicescanner resource reviews many essay writing sites. After reading the general information and criteria, features and reviews, I chose edusson and regularly use and recommend it!

alicia profile image
Alicia • Edited

Have you seen How To Create A PDF From Your Web Application by Rachel Andrew? It's a good overview and an awesome additional reading for people interested in the topic.

Mostly Paged.js seems really interesting to me as a polyfill to give print CSS some well deserved love.

Also I'm mostly interested in ebook (pdf/epub) at the moment but still curious. Seems like you got the dead tree version made through leanpub? How was your experience using it? How were the formats (they seem to be using a custom markdown flavour?)? Was styling for the printed version hard/different compared to the pdf/epub version?