I also recommend writing unit tests that makes the race condition more likely to happen. For example, if the code normally runs with < 10 threads, test it with 1000 threads. Sometimes code is well-behaved when the data entered are far apart, so try testing with consecutive values. If it's the opposite, test with random values.
What I learned over the years is that race-freedom is not composeable: code using several mutexes incorrectly could still suffer race condition, even though a single mutex is race-free on its own. When testing wait-free algorithms, start with very small primitives and gradually add onto it. And write plenty of assert() on the non-volatile local variables of the shared volatile variables the code might be using. When assert triggers under the debugger, you'll be able to see which invariants are violated in that snapshot.
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