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flatMap, Double Optionals, and Functional Programming

Father of 5, Software Developer by Trade, CEO and Founder of BrightDigit I run a few meetups focused on marketing and and Apple development.
Originally published at ・7 min read

A while ago I did an article on the basics of Optionals and how they work in Swift. However, it seems there's some confusion as to how one particular method works in Swift when it comes to a collection of Optionals: flatMap.

With all the talk regarding flattening the curve, today I want to explain exactly what it means to flatten in the context of functional programming. Additionally, it not only can be used on Arrays but single Optionals as well. In the end, using them correctly will make your code easier to read.

flatMap vs map and Generic

Before we dive into what flatMap does, let's talk about what flatten actually means. Most importantly, flatMap is typically a map coupled with a flatten operation. The flatten operation typically is used in the context of Generics, such as Arrays, Promises, Publishers, and even Optionals (remember Optionals are Generic enums).

Let's create our own Generic to show how this would work:

struct Foo<Value> {
  let value : Value

Here's a simple Generic Foo which contains a value. Therefore, let's add a simple map function in case the developer wants to convert the value into something else:

extension Foo {
  func map<Output>( _ callback: (Value) -> (Output) ) -> Foo<Output> {
    let output = callback(self.value)
    return Foo<Output>(value : output)

Now we have simple map method which works similar to others, where the developer can convert the Foo into some other type. For instance:

let firstItem = Foo(value: 3.0)
let secondItem ={ $0.description }

In this case, we have a Foo<Double> which is converted into a Foo<String> using our new map function.

However there are instances where this can cause issues.

Arrays of Arrays

The simplest case where map doesn't quite do what you want would be when you need a flat list. For instance, let's say you want to get a flat list of books from their authors:

struct Author {
  let name : String
  let books : [String]

Then you have a list of authors and their books in JSON:

    "Franz Kafka": [
      "The Trial",
      "The Castle"
    "Fyodor Dostoevsky": [
      "Crime and Punishment",
      "The Idiot",
      "The Possessed",
      "The Brothers Karamazov"
    "Leo Tolstoy": [
      "War and Peace",
      "Anna Karenina",
      "The Death of Ivan Ilyich"
    "William Shakespeare": [
      "King Lear",

Unfortunately, map would only return an Array of an Array or Jagged Array of books (i.e. [[String]]):

let authors : [Author] = ...
let books : [[String]] = {

As a result, we get:

    "The Trial",
    "The Castle"
      "Crime and Punishment",
      "The Idiot",
      "The Possessed",
      "The Brothers Karamazov"

However, this is where a flatMap would be useful:

let authors : [Author] = ...
let books : [String] = authors.flatMap {

Now, rather than returning an Array of Arrays, flatMap automatically flattens the result. Not only does this work with Arrays but other Generics as well. A great example of this is in use with asynchronous methods.

If you are interested in learning more about how SwiftNIO and Google Futures does this with Promises and Futures, check out my article on asynchronous programming here. Additionally Combine, which is frequently used with SwiftUI, contains a map and flatMap for its Publishers as well.

Besides Arrays, Promises, and Combine Publishers, there was one other Generic we are forgetting to cover which often can cause issues. If you have run into the elusive Type?? value then you have probably run into an instance where flatMap should be used on Optionals.

flatMap and the elusive Double Optional??

So let's say we have a generic function which returns an optional:

func maybe<T>(_ value: T) -> T? {
  Bool.random() ? value : nil

Then you've created a optional value:

let optionalValue : Int? = Int.random(in: 0...10)

Next, you decide to call that function which returns an optional on the option value and you end up with something that makes very little sense:

let optionalOptional : Int?? = maybe(optionalValue)

What is an Int??...?

As stated earlier an Optional is really another Generic type. Here's a small snippet of the Generic Enumeration behind the scenes:

public enum Optional<Wrapped> {
    case none
    case some(Wrapped)

As you can see the '?' is simply syntactic sugar. So for instance an Int? is really an Optional<Int>. Therefore, we can surmise that an Int?? is really a Optional<Optional<Int>>.

Therefore, we need to make sure that our result is flattened in order to use it. Luckily, Optional provides a flatMap function as well. For this reason, we can use Optional.flatMap to fix our result:

let betterOptionalValue : Int? = optionalValue.flatMap(maybe(_:))

By using flatMap, it flattens the result to return a single Optional. It's important to note, that optionalValue does not contain the ? suffix since we want to call flatMap on Optional<Int> as opposed to Int. Likewise, Optional also contains a map function for when your method will return a non-optional value and does not require flattening.

flatMap, parsing, and conversion

There are a few use cases where flatMap on an Optional are useful. For instance, when you are parsing a value, there are cases where you wish to throw an error depending whether the value is invalid or missing (i.e. nil). However in some instances, you don't care whether the value is invalid or nil and want to just return nil if it fails. In this case, flatMap fits perfectly well:

func parse (_ rawValue : RawType) -> ParsedType?

let parsedValue = optionalRawValue.flatMap(parse)

For instance, parsing UUID from a String, rather than:

let uuid : UUID?

if let uuidString = dictionary["VCS_UUID"] {
  uuid = UUID(uuidString: uuidString)
} else {
  uuid = nil

... we can use:

let uuid = dictionary["VCS_UUID"].flatMap(UUID.init(uuidString:))

Besides parsing, I've used flatMap in instances where I need to convert a successful Result or value to a SwiftUI View as well:

  var iconImage: some View {
    return self.icon.flatMap { icon in
      guard case let .image(name) = icon else {
        return nil
      return name
    }.map {

In this case if the self View contains an icon with the case image then use the name and create templated Image for the View.

While there are instances where flatMap is useful, more often than not you may just wish to filter the Optional results from a map operation. This is where compactMap comes in.

flatMap vs compactMap

In many instances, you probably want simply remove Optionals from your Array or having a map return only non-Optional values. Before Swift 4.1, there was only one method for doing this as well as the traditional flatMap mentioned previously. Unfortunately as stated in the implemented proposal, this caused much confusion. Therefore compactMap was added in Swift 4.1.

While flatMap concerns the returning of a flat Array of values, compactMap is specifically for instances where you need to make sure the Array returned contains no Optional values. In effect, if the closure for each item can return multiple items then a flatMap is right; otherwise if the closure can return either no items (i.e. nil) or one then compactMap makes the most sense.

So for example, if we have Node struct and an Array of optional Nodes:

struct Node<Value> {
  let value : Value
  let children : [Node<Value>]

let items : [Node<Int>?]

Therefore, let's see what happens when we use a combination of flatMap and compactMap in various ways:

// returns an array with no Optionals
let array : [Node<Int>] = items.compactMap{ $0 }

// returns and array of array of Nodes
let arrayArray : [[Node<Int>]] = items.compactMap{ $0?.children }

// assumes same as previous compactMap and issues a warning
let arrayArrayWithWarning : [[Node<Int>]] = items.flatMap{ $0?.children }

// returns flat array of Nodes from children
let flatArray = items.flatMap{ $0?.children ?? [Node]() }

// returns flat array of Nodes from children as well
let flatCompactArray = items.compactMap{ $0 }.flatMap{ $0.children }

Most importantly, flatMap is not supposed to return a nil (otherwise the compiler assumes it's compactMap and issues a warning). Therefore, you can either use the nil-coalesce operator to return an empty Array or use compactMap beforehand to ensure there will never be nil.

flatMap and flattening the Optionals and Generics

In this article, you've learned a few key points with regards to flatMap and its relationship to Generics and specifically Optionals:

  • The term flatten in functional programming means to remove a secondary generic into a one-dimensional result such as returning a Value? rather than Value?? or [Value] rather than [[Value]]
  • flatMap is to be used when you have an Array of Arrays and wish to flatten those Collections into a simple one-dimensional Array
  • Use flatMap when you are returning a result of the same Generic type as opposed to map when you are just returning a value such as a Promise, Future, or Combine Publisher
  • flatMap is important for Optionals in removing Double Optionals (i.e. **Type??**) from your code
  • flatMap is also useful for Optional when you are mapping an Optional value and don't need to distinguish between a nil or invalid input value
  • compactMap is specifically for the removing nil results from an one-dimensional array
  • If a flatMap closure can return nil, return an empty Array instead

Feel free to reach out if you have any additional questions on Twitter @leogdion or signup for the newsletter below to get the latest tutorials and guides on Swift development.

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