I opened up my VSCode, went to start my new project, and then realized that although I knew what needed to be done I had forgotten a lot of simple commands and syntax to get started. I decided this has to be something that happens to other developers as well, and so as a refresher and future reference for myself and others, I thought it might be a good idea to compile a list of commonly used rails tidbits. A cheat sheet, if you will.
Command Line Basics
Creating a new project
rails new my_app
There are a number of flags that can be included after your project name in the rails new command as well as with other rails commands.
-B [--skip-bundle] #Do no run bundle install -G [--skip-git] #Skip .gitignore file [--skip-gemfile] #Don't create a Gemfile -d [--database=DATABASE] #Preconfigure for selected database #(options: mysql/oracle/postgresql/sqlite3/frontbase/ibm_db/s) -T [--skip-test-unit] #Skip Test::Unit files -f [--force] #Overwrite files that already exist -h [--help] #Show help message and quit
The rails server command launches a server that allows you access to the application through a web browser.
rails server #or rails s -p [desired port] #Flag for changing server port -e [desired environment] #Flag for changing environment
Rail console launches an IRB session in the command line.
rails console #or rails c -e #Flag specifying environment the console should operate --sandbox #Flag that allows testing code without changing data
The rails routes command will show you a list off all of the defined routes in your application. You can also go to
http://localhost:[port]/routes while working in the rails server.
Routes are defined in the
#config/routes.rb root 'pages#home' #Define a root path ('/') get 'signin' => 'sessions#signin' #Create route that maps a URL to controller action resources :users #Creates all routes for RESTful resource resources :users, :only => [:index] #Creates routes for certain actions resources :users, :except=> [:index] #Creates routes except specified ones get 'users/index' #Shorthand for connecting route to controller/action
Below is a table of all of the verb/path/action mappings. It uses a User model as an example.
|GET||/users||users#index||display list of all users|
|GET||/users/new||users#new||return HTML form for creating a new user|
|POST||/users||users#create||create a new user|
|GET||/users/:id||users#show||display specific user|
|GET||/users/:id/:edit||users#edit||return an HTML form for editing a user|
|PATCH/PUT||/users/:id||users#update||update a specific user|
|DELETE||/users/:id||users#destroy||delete a specific user|
New controllers are created in the
app/controllers folder in your project. The controller is a Ruby class which inherits from
ApplicationController and is declared like so:
#controllers/users_controller.rb class UsersController < ApplicationController #controller code goes here end
You can use a private method to encapsulate permissible parameters for your controller.
#controllers/users_controller.rb class UsersController < ApplicationController #controller code goes here private def user_params params.require(:user).permit(:username, :password, :email) end end
You can also save some time by using the built in generator command for Controllers. This will create a new Controller, as well as associated views, tests, and assets.
rails g controller Users #generates a Users Controller rails g controller Users index show #generates a Users Controller with specified actions, routes, and views
New models are created in the
app/models folder in your project. The model is a Ruby class which inherits from
ApplicationRecord and is declared like so:
#models/user.rb class User < ApplicationRecord #model code goes here end
You can save some time by using the built in model generator, which will create the model for you as well as a migration with table columns.
rails g model User #generates a user model rails g model User username:string #generates user model and migration with username column
Migrations allow you to create, update, and delete database items and work together with rake tasks to run and make changes to the database.
rails db:create #creates the database rails db:migrate #runs pending migrations in order rails db:rollback #rolls back the last migration rails db:seed #runs the seed file to populate db with seed data rails db:drop #drops the database
Migration data types are as follows:
Migrations also have handy built in generators that allow you to quickly generate a migration for a specific resource.
rails g model User username:string email:string
This will generate a migration that looks like this.
class CreateUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration def change create_table :users do |t| t.string :username t.string :email t.timestamps null: false end end end
If the name of the migration follows a format of
RemoveXFromY where X is the column and Y is an existing table, a migration will be generated the adds or removes columns from the specified table.
rails g migration AddPasswordToUsers password:string #adding column rails g migration RemoveEmailFromUsers email:string #removing column
The above will generate the following migrations:
#adding column class AddPasswordToUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration def change add_column :users, :password, :string add_index :users, :password end end #removing column class RemoveEmailFromUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration def change remove_column :users, :email, :string end end
I hope you find this refresher cheat sheet helpful. This is by no means an exhaustive list. The intention of creating a guide like this is to provide a single place wherein a lot of commonly used Rails tidits can live together for quick reference. Feel free to leave any feedback you might have!
References used in compiling this list:
-Rails Command Line
-Action Controller Overview
-Active Model Basics
-Ruby On Rails Cheatsheet
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