For web automation, there are common scenarios containing end-to-end automation without human intervention, headless browser automation, and partial automation.
Partial automation means that not the entire business process is automated, and humans may operate some in advance due to security concerns, complex operations which are not repetitive but time-consuming, etc. In this automation case, the browser is opened, the human will do the relevant preparation work, and then the automation script will be executed for the repetitive part.
In this case, attaching the existing browser is necessary for the automation script to handle the same browser which human works on. We are introducing the browser attaching method for different automation libraries here, containing Selenium, Playwright, and Clicknium.
Selenium attaches to the existing browser
- Download ChromeDriver from here. You need to select the same version of chromedriver.exe with your installed chrome browser, which you can see it by
chrome://versionin chrome browser.
- Place the chromedriver.exe in the same folder as Chrome.exe. For example, if your Chrome browser file path is
C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe, then the chromedriver.exe could be accessed with
- The browser that needs to be attached should be started with argument --remote-debugging-port, and you also need to operate on this browser. The command looks like this: "C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe" --remote-debugging-port=8888
- Notice that if there are other Chrome browsers running in the same time, it is better to close the others and keep the only one that you want to attach later, or the Selenium script might not successfully attach to the right browser, or the page that you want to automate may get refreshed when attaching.
The idea is to start a Chrome instance by specifying the option of
debugger_address, the port in the address is what we specified in the command before. And then, get to the page where you want to run the Selenium automation script after attaching.
from selenium import webdriver from selenium.webdriver import ChromeOptions from selenium.webdriver.chrome.service import Service options = ChromeOptions() options.debugger_address = "127.0.0.1:" + '8888' browser = webdriver.Chrome(service=Service(executable_path="C:\\Program Files\\Google\\Chrome\\Application\\chromedriver.exe"), options=options) browser.get("https://contoso.com/u/0/#in?compose=new")
The playwright attaches to the existing browser
- Run playwright install to init the playwright prerequisites
- The browser that needs to be attached should be started with argument
--remote-debugging-port, and you also need to operate on this browser. The command looks like this:
"C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe" --remote-debugging-port=8888
- Notice that if there are other Chrome browsers running in the same time, it is better to close the others and keep the only one that you want to attach later. And if there are multiple windows opened from the browser started by the above command, it is better to keep one page with the Url that you want to automate to avoid attaching to a non-target page.
The playwright provides two ways to attach to existing browsers: connect and connect_over_cdp. The
connect needs to work with
launchServer in Node.js, so we will use
connect_over_cdp in Python to manually start the Chrome browser. The code is as below:
from playwright.sync_api import sync_playwright with sync_playwright() as p: browser = p.chromium.connect_over_cdp("http://localhost:8888") default_context = browser.contexts page = default_context.pages
Clicknium attaches to exsiting browser
- Install Clicknium VSCode Extension and Python module
pip install clicknium. More about Clicknium.
- Install the Clicknium browser extension. There are two ways of doing this:
- Install via Python:
import clicknium as cc cc.chrome.extension.install() Install via VSCode extension UI:
- Notice that the browser extension needs to be enabled after installation.
Clicknium provides two ways to
attachexisting browsers, attach and
attachis to attach a browser by a web element specified in the target browser. The
attach_by_title_urlis to attach to a target browser by title or Url. This is more flexible if the target page element can be dynamically changed. The code is as below: (we may use wildcard * if part of the Url may change)
from clicknium import clicknium as cc, locator browser = cc.chrome.attach_by_title_url(ulr='https://contoso.com/u/0/in?id=*') #browser.find_element(locator.hundun.img)
It is not easy to make attaching to the browser stable. If you have any suggestions on this, please feel free to leave a comment. Thanks.
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