In the current growing technology industry, organizations are generating and storing more and more data and are looking to hire professionals to derive valuable insights from said data to help drive business decisions. Here, data science plays a big role and has actually been considered “the sexiest job of the 21st century” according to Harvard Business Review. With an understanding that learning a new discipline can be challenging and overwhelming, this roadmap is written with the goal to mitigate this. Whether you're a recent graduate, a career changer, or simply curious about the world of data, this roadmap is designed to guide you through your journey to achieve a desired objective or goal within the timeframe of a year.
Before diving into data science, it's crucial to understand its essence. Data science is the practice of extracting meaningful insights and knowledge from data using various techniques, including statistical analysis, machine learning, and data visualization. Hence, briefly it can be said that data science involves;
• Statistics, computer science, mathematics
• Data cleaning and formatting
• Data visualization
Linear Algebra and Calculus are very important as they help in understanding various machine learning algorithms that play an important role in data science. Similarly, statistics is very significant as it is a part of data analysis. Descriptive Statistics is a powerful method to summarize data while Inferential Statistics is applicable in hypothesis testing.
If you are a beginner, learning Python is strongly recommended for data science. Python is a favorite among data scientists for its simplified syntax. One can also access a lot of open-source libraries, including NumPy, pandas, and scikit-learn for the implementation of various data science tasks.
Data collection is the process of gathering relevant data for further analysis from a variety of sources while data wrangling is the preparing and transforming data to an easier format for further analysis.
Master the art of EDA to gain insights from your data. EDA involves exploring the data using various statistical models like mean, median etc and come up with hypotheses and perform analyses. Data visualization tools like Matplotlib and Seaborn will be your best friends during this stage and will include data exploration using visual methods like histograms, bar charts and pie charts to identify trends and patterns within data.
Understand the core concepts of machine learning, including supervised learning which includes regression and classification problems and unsupervised learning whose applications are clustering and dimensionality reduction.
Learn to build, train, and evaluate machine learning models. Scikit-learn provides an extensive toolkit for this purpose.
If you're interested in more advanced techniques, consider delving into deep learning using libraries like TensorFlow or PyTorch.
Data engineering is the field of building data infrastructure by designing, building and maintaining ETL data pipelines. This is not mandatory for data scientists to learn but having a good understanding is a big plus in the job market.
• No Degree Requirement: While a degree in computer science can be beneficial, it's not mandatory for a career in data science. What matters most are the skills you acquire and master.
• Domain Expertise: Having expertise in a specific domain or industry can be an advantage as it enables you to leverage data effectively for solving domain-specific problems.
• Communication Skills: Good verbal and written communication skills are essential for collaborating with various stakeholders and effectively conveying your data findings and recommendations.
• Focus on Fundamentals: Data science is vast, so it's important to start by understanding the basics before delving into advanced concepts. Building a strong foundation is key.
• Practical Applications: Practical skills gained through working on real-world projects are highly valued by organizations. Practical application of knowledge is often more important than theoretical knowledge alone.
• Track Your Progress: Monitoring your learning progress is crucial. Assignments and assessments can help you gauge whether you are grasping concepts effectively and moving in the right direction.
• Stay Updated: Data science is an evolving field. Keeping up with the latest research and developments will help you remain competitive and stand out in your career.
These points provide valuable guidance for individuals looking to embark on a data science journey or advance their existing data science skills. They emphasize the importance of a balanced approach that combines theoretical knowledge with practical experience and ongoing learning.